I will begin this exploration into the theory of everything by explaining, using present-day laws of physics, how magnets work. I will then explain how magnets work under my new theory, which uses magnetic monopoles, and how to isolate monopoles. People have known about electricity and magnetism for centuries. In time, scientists found that there are two types of electric charges: positive and negative. These opposite charges attract each other, and the electric charge is quantized. That is, all electric charges are multiples of an elementary electric charge found on the electron. As for magnetism, the ancient Greeks knew that certain minerals attracted iron and other pieces of the same mineral. About a thousand years ago, the Chinese noticed that a magnetized needle always points in the same direction and thus can be used for navigation.
Unlike electric charges, which can be isolated, magnetic materials always have two poles (called north and south after the directions they point to on Earth). If one breaks a magnet into two pieces, each smaller piece will again have both a north and a south pole. It is therefore apparently impossible to isolate a single magnetic pole—only the combination of north and south poles (called a dipole) seems to exist.
The absence of a single magnetic charge (called a monopole) makes the laws of electricity and magnetism different. This lack of symmetry has bothered physicists for decades. We now know of two distinct methods of generating a magnetic field. We can either use a permanent magnet, such as a bar magnet, or we can run an electric current through a coil of wire. Are these two methods fundamentally different, or are they somehow related to each other? Let us investigate further.
Fig 1 A.
Magnetic lines of force
As illustrated in Fig 1 A, the external magnetic fields generated by a coil of wire and a conventional bar magnet are remarkably similar in appearance. Incidentally, these fields can easily be mapped out using iron filings. My first hypothesis is that the field of a bar magnet is produced by electric currents that flow around the outside of the bar magnet in a counterclockwise direction as we look along the magnet from its north to its south pole. There is no doubt, by analogy with a coil of wire, that such currents would generate a magnetic field.
My second hypothesis is that the field is produced by a positive magnetic monopole located close to the north pole of the magnet in combination with a negative monopole of equal magnitude located close to the south pole of the magnet. But what, exactly, is a magnetic monopole? Well, it is the magnetic equivalent of an electric charge. For example, a positive magnetic monopole is an isolated magnetic north pole.
We would expect magnetic field lines to radiate away from such an object, just as electric field lines radiate away from a positive electric charge. Likewise, a negative magnetic monopole is an isolated magnetic south pole. We would expect magnetic field lines to radiate toward such an object, just as electric field lines radiate toward a negative electric charge.
The magnetic field patterns generated by both types of monopole are sketched in Fig 1 B.
Fig 1 B.
We now have two hypotheses to explain the origin of the magnetic field of a bar magnet. What experiment could we perform in order to determine which of these two hypotheses is correct? Well, suppose that we break our bar magnet in two. What happens according to each hypothesis?
If we cut a coil of wire in two, then we just end up with two shorter coils of wire. So according to our first hypothesis, if we break a bar magnet in two, then we just end up with two smaller bar magnets. However, our second hypothesis predicts that if we break a bar magnet in two, then we end up with two equal and opposite magnetic monopoles. Needless to say, the former prediction is in accordance with experiment, whereas the latter most certainly is not.
Indeed, we can break a bar magnet into as many separate pieces as we like, and each piece will still act like a smaller, but otherwise equivalent, bar magnet. No matter how small we make the pieces, we cannot produce a magnetic monopole. In fact, nobody has ever observed a magnetic monopole experimentally, which leads most physicists to conclude that magnetic monopoles do not exist. Thus, we can conclude that the magnetic field of a bar magnet is produced by electric currents flowing over the surface of the magnets. However, what is the origin of these currents?
Perhaps there is one more hypothesis to consider. If you take a coil of wire and move a bar magnet past it, you get an electric current. This is how electricity is generated in a generator. So let us go one step further; if the movement of this bar magnet past this coil of wire produces electricity, then why would you have protons and electrons—which have an electric charge—coming out of this coil of wire? We all know that a bar magnet has a magnetic field, not an electric charge. Then why did the protons and electrons come out of the coil of wire? Perhaps they are not protons and electrons, but rather the north and south magnetic monopoles that Paul Dirac theorized existed in 1931 (see Introduction).
That is my hypothesis—that the proton and electron are really Dirac monopoles. The proton is actually a north magnetic monopole, and the electron is actually a south magnetic monopole.
In addition, just how would these magnetic monopoles behave? For example, the bar magnet is considered a dipole with its north magnetic pole at one end and south magnetic pole at the other. However, my hypothesis considers using two directions to create a magnetic field, as illustrated in Fig 1 C.
Fig 1 C.
Magnetic field lines
Fig 1 C shows that a magnet’s north magnetic monopole would travel from the south pole of the bar magnet to the north pole of the bar magnet, and just the opposite would occur for the south magnetic monopole. Now both magnetic monopoles are moving in opposite directions. The north magnetic monopole will attract the south magnetic monopole in perpetual motion, creating a magnetic line of force. Without this perpetual motion of magnetic monopoles, you cannot have a magnetic field.
This perpetual motion is attained by the magnetic attraction between the north and south magnetic monopoles. It is my hypothesis that each monopole has an area that does not attract or repel. This area is close to the surface of the monopole (see Fig 1 D). When north and south monopoles mutually attract, their magnetic attraction brings them closer together. But once these opposite monopoles get very close to each other, they no longer have any attraction for each other.
Fig 1 D.
Magnetic monopoles’ no repel/attraction area
Fig 1 E.
Magnetic monopoles’ perpetual motion
Fig 1 E, Ref A shows the area of no repulsion or attraction. Any monopole in this area will experience neither an attractive nor repulsive force. Ref B shows a monopole in this area. That south monopole will then attract the north monopole at the area shown in Ref C and bring it closer to the north monopole at Ref A. Because Ref A is a north monopole, it will repel the force of the north monopole already at Ref A. The south monopole at Ref B will then move closer to Ref C, and the attractive force of Ref A will keep the south monopole in the no repel/attraction area, bringing the north monopole at Ref C into the no repel/attraction area of Ref A. The attractive force of Ref B will keep the north monopole near the north monopole of Ref A, in the no repel/attraction area. Now the south monopole in Ref D will take the place of the monopole that was in Ref B, and this cycle will continue in perpetual motion, as shown in Ref E.
It’s this perpetual motion that creates a magnetic line of force. In bar magnets, this line of force also creates a north and south magnetic pole, making the bar magnet a dipole. Fig 1 C shows the perpetual motion of the north and south magnetic monopoles that create the bar magnet’s north and south magnetic poles. This is accomplished by the mutual attraction of the north and south magnetic monopoles. The south monopoles create a magnetic north pole by attracting all of the north monopoles in the same direction. Likewise, the north monopoles create a magnetic south pole by attracting all of the south monopoles in the same direction. This is why you continue to get a magnetic dipole when you break a bar magnet in half—since the perpetual motion of the north and south monopoles that make up the magnetic lines of force is unaffected by breaking the bar magnetic in half.
In conclusion, magnetic monopoles have already been discovered; they have been mislabeled as the proton and the electron. When you move a bar magnet past a coil of wire, it will attract and repel monopoles, which have a magnetic charge. Having an electric charge, protons and electrons will not be affected by the magnetic charge of a bar magnet and therefore cannot be coming out of the coil of wire.
It’s these north and south magnetic monopoles that produce electricity, not protons and electrons. This explains why you get a magnetic field around a coil of wire when an electric current is passed through it. Electricity is created by separating the north and south magnetic monopoles into concentrated streams. This separation of magnetic monopoles is accomplished using a bar magnet, which has a magnetic charge and thus attracts the opposite monopoles in the same direction that the bar magnet is moving. When these concentrated streams of north and south magnetic monopoles recombine in a coil of wire, they will again create a magnetic field producing a dipole, because this is where they had originated before being separated by a bar magnet.
These are also the same north and south magnetic monopoles that create the magnetic lines of force in a bar magnet, which are responsible for producing all forms of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum, including gravity. Using only north and south magnetic monopoles and a particle of matter that represents an element, you can build an atom. With this three-particle atom, you can unite the fundamental forces of nature.