Alternatively can light travelling in a straight line away from you travel less than 1 light year in 1 year?
I think the answer is yes for both but want to make sure.
Of course as with all of my other questions we need to start with a black hole.
The key to the following logic is that C ( the speed of light ) is constant however neither time nor space is constant. By that I mean that in different reference frames two clocks wont necessarily stay syncronized. So if an observer passes through a strong gravitational field the speed of his clock relative to a clock in empty space will signifigantly vary. If the speed of his clock varies and his perception of distance varies then the distance that he traveled in the past can appear differently to what he currently percieves.
Here is the example.
You are hovering very close to the event horizon of a black hole. You shoot lasers then wait a few seconds then hit your boosters to travel in the direction that you shot the lasers. Peculiarly you notice that the lasers are now much farther away than they should be. In fact after a year you may notice that the light travelled 20 light years away from you.
So now you find that strange shoot 2 move lasers in the same direction and then put your ship into reverse back to hovering near the EH. You see that these lasers after a year really are only 1/2 a light year away from you.
However at any moment if you measured the speed of the lasers away from you they will be travelling at the speed of light away.
They key here is moment. Within a year ( or even a second ) the percieved flow of time can change as one passes into or out of a gravitational field. While this is happening percieved distances are also changing. What was your last year was really 20 years to everything else that is in your current gravitational well.
However at an instant light never travels away from you at any other speed than C.