Is nature’s law’s the symmetry or breaking the symmetries? what? My younger brothers Rupak Bhattacharya ( now35 years) & Kausik Bhattacharya of 7/51 purbapalli, sdepur 24 pgs(N) West Bengal, India, few months back e mailed me. I became skeptic to answer. A dangerous and a very difficult question indeed. This question may be related with origin of matter in the universe in a bigger sense! It is also big question before the theoretical physicists who are dealing with the Big Bang origin of our observable universe! Do you know what laws our universe follows? Of course, many shapes found in our world display little or no symmetry, but many livings are of course almost symmetric within their species. At least there are left and right symmetry in my eyes. Is that not? Every oranges, every lemons found in the different places of this world is almost have almost perfect sphere shape. Please look at the human beings. They are almost symmetric about an axis through the body, - but quite a little bit also asymmetric- a variation in symmetry? Breaking the exact symmetry? Is that nature’s law?
Theoretical Physicists say in regard the universe, a perfect symmetry was broken after the Big Bang moment! They say in QCD ,symmetries were present only at planks moment of Big bang in regard of matter and antimatter amount , in regard elementary particle’s and antiparticle’s mass and original symmetry was lost spontaneously some where in the journey of universe along its road. Then the symmetry must be broken after matter and antimatter was created in equal amount in the early epoch of Big Bang. Otherwise how our universe is made of only matter? Where went the antimatter? One extra particle of matter for every ten billion particles of antimatter was enough to make our world survive. This excess of matter was the seed of our whole universe, which filled with galaxies, stars and planets – and eventually our life- at elementary particle level we human beings are also made of quarks! There are various types of Symmetries we can see around us and they are iso spin symmetry- in particle physics [Werner Heisenberg –Nobel prize 1932] , mirror symmetry[P],( all events should occur in exactly the same way whether they are seen directly or in a mirror. There should not be any difference between left and right and nobody should be able to decide whether they are in their own world or in a looking glass world). charge symmetry[C] , (Charge symmetry states that particles should behave exactly like their alter egos, antiparticles, which have exactly the same properties but the opposite charge). and a time symmetry[T] (physical events at the micro level should be equally independent whether they occur forwards or backwards in time.), non-abelian gauge symmetry - in electromagnetism, gauge symmetry SU(2) X U(1) for the weak and electromagnetic force -Weinberg ,Abdus Salam & Glashow [Nobel Prize , 1979].
It may be that charge and mirror symmetries are broken separately, but both of them, the so Called CP-symmetry, were certainly not broken at the same time. The physicist community consoled itself with the idea that this symmetry remains unbroken in nature ,in universe. The laws of nature, they believe, will not change if one somehow steps into a mirror world where all matter is replaced with antimatter. Don’t try to hand shake with an alien (your anti) in that mirror world. Both of you will vanish leaving behind just radiation. When radioactive substance Kaon (Nobel Prize to James Cronin and Val Fitch in 1980) was considered a small fraction of the kaons did not follow the current mirror and charge symmetries; they broke the double CP-symmetry and thus challenged the whole structure of the theory. The first person to point out the decisive importance of such a broken symmetry for the genesis of the cosmos was the Russian physicist and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Andrei Sakharov (Nobel prize-1975). In 1967, he pointed out in his famous work that CP violation must be the cause of the asymmetry in the universe. And he finally opined it is the only cause of more matter than antimatter in our universe. For this, he set up three conditions for creating a universe like ours, empty of antimatter [where went the antimatter?]. Firstly, that the laws of physics could at that epoch distinguish between matter and antimatter, which in fact was discovered with the broken CP-symmetry; [But no body questions how laws of physics could distinguish between matter and antimatter? Or between quarks and anti-quarks families?] secondly, that the cosmos must be originated in the heat of the Big Bang; and thirdly, that the protons in every atom nucleus must disintegrate. The last condition might then lead to the end of the world, since it implies that all matter will finally must disappear into radiation & decay. But so far that has not happened in our universe; and experiments have shown that protons remain stable for 1033 years, a comfortable 10 trillion times longer than the age of the universe, which is slightly more than 1010 years. And still there is no one who knows how Sakharov’s chain of events took place in the early universe.
Now the question remains yet before me. Why the early epoch of Big bang about 14 billions years ago nature suddenly chose for breaking the established CPT symmetry? This very question of ‘why the symmetries were broken’ remained a mystery until 1972, when two young researchers from the University of Kyoto, Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa, [Nobelprize-2008] found the solution in a 3 x 3 matrix. How does this double broken symmetry take place? Each kaon particle consists of a combination of a quark and an anti-quark- they told. Both quarks and anti-quarks had severe mass in Gev [more than three hundred thousand times heavier than the electron]. The weak force makes them switch identities time and time again: the quark becomes an anti-quark while the anti-quark becomes a quark, thus transforming the kaon into its antikaon. In this way the kaon particle flips between itself and its anti-self[ Double phase of a particle simultaneously? or like a dancing particle- Possible? Possible in human minds self and non self- then minds and thoughts are made of quarks and anti-quraks? Difficult to imagine! But if the right conditions are met, the symmetry between matter and antimatter will be broken[ what was that right conditions?]. Kobayashi and Maskawa’s calculation matrix contains probabilities for describing how the transformation occurs. It turned out that the quarks and anti-quarks swapped their individual identity with each other within their own family. If this exchange of identity with double broken symmetry was to take place between matter and antimatter, a further quark family was needed in addition to the other two and it was the charm quark .The charm quark was discovered as early as 1974,the bottom quark in 1977 and the last one, the top quark, as late as 1994.
But you look around you. Does not Nature respected a mirror symmetry?, the symmetry concerning left and right?. Is not that? Look at your hands! Look at your feet! Look at your eyes! Look every double organ in your body-kidney, lungs, ovaries, testes! Look under microscope at every cells of an individual organ tissues [say normal liver hepatocytes] .I find always symmetry in nature!-may be my findings are biased one. Of course very occasionally there happens abnormalities- they are of course congenital –not nature laws. – a genetic abnormalities- a phocomelia. See yourself! See any animals! See any insects! see drosophila fly! Similarity even in genetic level with us in homeobox gene even. See structure of DNA .The famous Watson &cricks[ Nobel prize] double helix.- chirality’ present. perfectly right & left similarity. I think that Nature must had the choice of an aesthetically satisfying a left-right symmetry even in most elementary particle level also.
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Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya