I have no formal education in cosmology or astronomy, except for a single Intro to Astronomy class I took a couple years ago. I do however have a good general understanding of the basic concepts involved in much of modern cosmological theory. I am extremely skeptical of modern cosmological models based on my personal logical instincts (not actual logical arguments, rather a "gut" feeling) as well as a large amount of actual reasoning. However, as I said, my big weakness is that I don't actually know any of the math involved in current theory, and would be unable to have a discussion that directly drew on those equations. I would like to present several theories I have formulated that go against many of the fundamental paradigms of modern cosmology, and have them discussed or even explained away by the experts here that do know the math. Although the math itself is not something I am interested in learning during the process, any interpretation of the math that can be explained in words would most likely be comprehensible to me. I would make the argument that if you can't do this, then your math is irrelevant anyway. So feel free to explain equations if need be.
I would also like to make it clear ahead of time that I do not take myself or any of my theories too seriously, and present them as much to further my own development as that of the theories. Most of my theories have just come off the top of my head at some point and I haven't seen any reason why they can't be true.
As a final preface, I will make it clear that, if I turn out to be some sort of genius and my theories turn out to be correct, I hold all of you witness that these are my theories and I arrived at them completely independantly.
I will start with just one, and present others where I see they might help the discussion:
Suppose there is a class of particles in the universe that has a similar sort of interaction to electromagnetic particles. (I believe what I'm thinking of is called "guage symmetry". Correct me if I'm wrong.) For these particles, however, the rules of interaction are exactly reversed: whereas in electromagnetics, like charges repel and opposite charges attract, suppose instead that in these hypothetical particles, like "charges" attract and opposites repel. This would cause particles of like "charge" to clump together, and oppositely charged clumps to push away from each other, all the while collecting and combining with other clumps of like charge. Ultimately, you would end up with large regions of space filled entirely with only one type of charge. Any particles of the opposite charge that were hypothetically placed inside such a region would quickly be expelled from it.
Now suppose inside one such region - let's say a region of "positive" matter - on one particular spherical clump of this matter, intelligent life emerged and began observing the universe around it. At least at first, these lifeforms would only be familiar with half of this interaction: all of the matter surrounding them, including that which made up their own forms, would be entirely of the "possitive" type. The nearest sizable coagulation of "negative" charge would be, say, several thousand lightyears away. The lifeforms would naturally assume at first that there only was one kind of charge involved in this particular force.
Now lets give this hypothetical type of "charge" some sort of name. How about "mass"? Yeah, mass would be a good name for it.
There is much I don't understand about current observations of the universe and the mathematics of current theory, but what I've just proposed fits verrrry nicely with everything I do understand.
If no other force of the universe ever overtook this one at any scale, this force would ultimately cause ALL the matter of "positive" mass and ALL the matter of "negative" mass to coagulate into exactly two regions of opposite masses. This would effectively divide the entire universe into two universes (universi?), whose main interaction between each other would simply be to push further apart. However, if instead there was a certain scale at which other forces began to dominate the movement of matter, the result would be a rough limit to the size of these coagulations. Instead of resulting in exactly two sub-universes, this force would instead result in a scattering of "island universes"...anyone heard that term before?
I believe this could help explain the spiral nature of galaxies as a result of the seperation process of the two types of mass. It could explain why the outer regions of galaxies rotate faster than "positive mass" alone could account for. It could help explain why something between the galaxies seems to be pushing them apart. What's more, I expect relativity theory could quite easily be modified to include both types of mass and the "antigravity" produced between them.
If we assumed that "positive mass matter" and "negative mass matter" was identicle in every way, then we would expect identicle types of coagulation structures from each type. I.e: "negative mass" galaxies should be expected to be identicle in structure and distribution to "positive mass" galaxies. Observing our "positive mass" galaxies, however, makes it clear that this cannot be the case. This suggests that the most common "negative mass" matter is different in several ways from our "positive mass" matter. This would not be unexpected, however. After all, protons and electrons, the primary particles by which electromagnetism makes its effects known, are different in almost every respect, excepting only the magnitude of their electromagnetic charge.