The Universe is Otherwise
Part 2- Paeps (gravity particles)
The concept of gravity having a metaphysical “attraction” nature needs to be corrected. It is time to look at gravity as having a physical causality. Doing so clarifies its logical system and properly specifies how it functions. Try thinking of gravity as particles pushing on things. Doing so reveals exciting concepts.
The basic concept of gravitation is that in our universe, masses want to come together. This pulling together is learned to be an attraction. Students tend to be brainwashed with the idea of gravitational attraction. It is very hard to think about gravity otherwise, and so attraction implies one body such as earth pulling objects toward its center. Attraction gravity implies action at a distance, which concept is untenable in seeking physical understanding. Newton and others rejected the concept without further defining their “form” of gravitation. Einstein focused on warped space and gravity wells. Modern physicists may be able to visualize some form of local causality in their formulation of gravity, but their causality is not obvious to the general population.
My definition is that space, the field, or the ether, is gravitation moving in all directions at speed C. It carries radiation which is the reason that electromagnetic phenomena travel at speed C in space. Essentially, the field, ether, or whatever you choose to call it must have physical properties and participate in the transmission of electromagnetism. This correlates with some of Einstein’s later views in which space is an active participant and carrier system. He wrote that “space without ether would be unthinkable because there would be no propagation of light.” My gravitation carries light.
My gravitation is a physical presence that provides a pressure upon masses. For ease of imagining, one could view the gravitational field as corpuscular in nature like our atmosphere with its molecules. Just like our atmosphere produces an atmospheric pressure, gravity likewise provides pressure. I introduce here PAEPS as the components of gravitation. Paeps stands for ‘particles applying external pressure’. They are the smallest possible particles and fill the whole of space. They are paeps only as long as they don’t have spin.
As the smallest possible particle, paeps form the background against which everything else is identified. They are individually invisible and undetectable. Considering the nature of gravitation, the paep field will never be directly observed.
External gravitation is gravity that transfers a push effect by motion. In the “void of space,” paeps travel at velocity C in all directions. In open space, there is a paep equilibrium from all directions such that the paeps have no net impact upon each other just as photons don’t affect each other. A single mass located in this “void of space” will be impacted equally and constantly from all directions. Thus heavenly bodies take spherical forms.
How do paeps provide gravitation? Since paeps are so small, most pass through any mass. A few interact and are absorbed. Visualize a spherical planet. Paep interaction and absorption results in a reduced pressure coming up from the surface on the side opposite the entry point side of the sphere. This reduced, upward-moving gravitation partially offsets the downward pressure of gravity from above. The result is the gravitation force we understand today but now it’s a net force between pressures from opposite directions. The force is greatest at the planetary surface as that is where the maximum percentage of upcoming paeps have passed through the planetary mass. At higher elevations more of the paeps impacting a mass from below come at angles and were less affected by the planet as they passed through less of it. The net effect is of the same pressure from above and an increasing pressure from below. Further elevation causes a lessening of downward net pressure. The pressures have become more nearly balanced from above and below. The ultimate elevation is into the remote region, the “void of space.” Carrying this logic forward yields the universally accepted inverse square law for calculating gravitational force by distance of separation.
The neutrino is an example of a particle that passes through mass and is rarely absorbed. Penetration by neutrinos supports this hypothesis of gravity particles penetrating masses in space. Scientists can detect neutrinos. Therefore they aren’t basic paeps. However, they may be slightly modified forms of paeps.
Paeps serve more purposes than providing gravitation. The following properties of paeps are important to understand:
1. The paep is an elementary, perhaps the elementary particle.
2. Paeps travel at the speed of light. They do not exist as such at rest or at lesser speeds.
3. Paeps travel in equal quantity in all directions in the void of space, generally without interacting with each other.
4. Paeps are particles with no spin.
5. Paeps penetrate mass, and in doing so are somewhat diminished and potentially somewhat absorbed.
6. In an unbalanced region, paeps can affect each other such that path of one may be bent by another, and ultimately spin may result from the turbulence.
7. Paeps acquiring any degree of spin or cyclical wave path qualities, or losing velocity, begin the preliminary step of conversion into a mass particle.
8. There is a spectrum of particle existence with a paep at one end and the gradually more spinning, more dense, more externally static particles at the other end. The characteristics at this other end define mass particles. The spectrum extends to the most dense mass particles. Ultimately spin defines the existence of mass, and the amount of spin defines the specific mass of particles.
9. A paep applies pressure to a spinning particle specifically because the paep does not spin. Because of its spin, mass is pressured, and in return, the spin causes the paep paths to become bent.
10. Mass exists as the antithesis of its background of non-spinning paeps. By exhibiting pushing pressure, paeps exhibit a property like mass, but they should not be confused with mass.
11. The field of paeps is the medium or ether. Depending on perspective, slightly modified paeps may be included in defining the medium.
Some postulates about gravitation follow from the idea of paeps and will lead to future discussion.
1. Angular gravitation is an energy that can convert to matter upon impact, thus reversing our mass to energy focus with E=mc2.
2. The degree of spin distinguishes gravitation particles from mass particles, forming a spectrum of “states of existence.”
3. The localized push of paeps is not diminished and provides the nuclear force.
Many in science have sought an illusive elementary particle. One theory proposed in the 1960s by Peter Higgs suggests the existence of a most fundamental elementary particle called the Higgs boson. It exists within a theoretical Higgs field that permeates the universe and gives mass to other particles. It is logically undetectable with today’s technology. It was suggested as an extension of the many particles discovered under quantum theory. As an aside from our study of gravity, those who understand the reasons for conjuring up the Higgs boson will realize that paeps act in a logical way that causes them to accomplish what is expected of a Higgs boson. And paeps do so without having been incorporated for that purpose.
Regarding the form of the universe, I conclude that it has existed always and is infinite in scope. It consists everywhere of paep particles moving in every direction. They give the universe structure/existence. Masses may have always existed or were formed subsequently.
A follow up part will suggest an initial application of angular motion leading to revolutions and solar system creation. At some point I will offer comparisons with and improvements to LeSage’s pushing gravity theory.