Not sure the best fit for this topic (Astronomy? Observations? Maybe even a question?)---but Bad Astronomy did have a chapter on seeing stars in the daytime, so...
in my local astronomy club meeting, two members claimed that many times, they have let a child look at Jupiter and its array of moons in their telescopes, only to have them look out at the sky and say, "so, why are the moons going the other way in the scope from what they are in the sky?"
Now, I know children see better than adults, usually, but it still sounded fantastic enough that, though I do not doubt the club members at all, I thought perhaps several children decided to play a prank on the amateur astronomers.
So, I mentioned it to a mathematician who was interested in stargazing since childhood, and he said, "no, it's not a prank. *I* used to be able to see the moons of Jupiter with the naked eye!"
Ok, that is amazing and noteworthy--it seems human beings with good eyes can see Jupiter without the aid of a telescope. I have to admit, it's the glare of Jupiter, not the dimness of the moons, that is the problem with seeing the moons. Children probably have good lenses in their eyes so the glare is not amplified and distorted so much.
That then brings the question--why did we not know of Jupiter's moons before Gallileo? The mathematician and I talked about it for a minute and decided that the children assumed they were stars, nothing was actually recorded, and if they said anything to the adults, the adults didn't find anything worth recording and checking up on at later times.
But still, this can be added to the list of things a society without a telescope could discover (along with Uranus, a few galaxies and globular clusters without knowing what they are exactly, and so on).
Now, the mathematician said, "think anybody could see the rings of Saturn without a telescope?"
My guess would be, no. Even in my 9x63 binoculars, which clearly show the four brightest moons of Jupiter, all I get is a slight elongation of Saturn with no gap between ring and planet. At best, perhaps children thought Saturn egg shaped at one time, I figure.