Type 1a Supernovas and the Deceleration of the Universe
If the Uniform Expansion Theory is used to model the expansion of the Universe, then the rate that the universe is expanding is found to be decelerating at a predicted geometric rate that is “flat”. No dark energy or cosmological constant is needed in order for the observed expansion rate to conform to theory.
The “ acceleration of space”
The current “mainstream” description of the expansion of spacetime is that it is “accelerating”. This is based upon the observation that distant type 1a supernovas are dimmer than expected.
Dimmer “than expected” is model dependant
It was anticipated by physicists that the expansion of the universe would be decelerative at a specific geometric rate. (I believe it was Lemaître that made the first application of general relativity to describe the expected expansion of the universe). If the expansion were determined solely on the amount of matter in the universe and the effect of gravity, than initially the expansion rate of the universe would have to be very fast to avoid the universe from collapsing back in on itself, and over time, at a very specific geometric rate, the expansion would slow down due to the effect of gravity.
Flat or Balanced Expansion
The simplest rate for the universe to expand corresponds to what is commonly called a “flat” rate of expansion. A universe expanding at such a rate preserves parallel lines, so the geometry is the simplest. It is also a “balanced” universe in that after an infinite amount of time, the expansion of the universe would stop; the universe would be poised exactly between perpetual expansion and collapse.
Observed Expansion non-conformant to model
If one assumes that Type 1a supernovas are constant “standard candles”, then the observed brightness can be correlated to distance measures. If one 1asn were 4 times dimmer than another, it would be assumed that it is twice as far away. This distance determination corresponds to an observed cosmological red shift and if the expansion rate were “flat”, than there should be a specific distance measure correlating to a specific cosmological red shift. The discovery that Type 1a supernovas were dimmer than they should be, based upon their expected distance in relationship to the cosmological red shift, it was declared that the universe was “accelerating”.
In order for the universe to be accelerating, some new energy source is necessary to provide the “acceleration” of every galaxy in the universe. This energy enters our universe from some unknown source, according to some unknown set of rules and is called “Dark Energy”. In order to achieve the proposed acceleration rates, so much energy has to be added to our universe that when the Dark Energy is translated or expressed as mass, it represents the largest mass in the entire universe, more than the total mass of everything that can be seen.
However, if high red shift 1asn’s are inherently dimmer than assumed, then there is no “acceleration” and there would be no need for “dark energy”, provided the predicted luminosity conformed to the expected luminosity at measured or estimated distances, given the current understanding of gravitational interaction between galaxies.
Predictions of theory, why 1asn’s are dimmer
The geometrically defined Uniform Expansion Theory predicts that Type 1a supernovas are dimmer than assumed by the current standard model used to describe the expansion of the Universe. The reason for this prediction is that the effect of mass and effect of gravity was greater in the past. This would mean that it would take less effective mass in the past to reach the Chandrasekhar limiting pressure. This would mean that the supernovas are smaller, and hence dimmer.
Simple geometric model
If the expansion rate is defined by a simple geometric rate, (double the age of the universe and the size of the universe and everything in it increases 4 times), which includes expansion along an “unobserved” dimension (which produces the cosmological red shift, the property of inertia and explains the intrinsic rest energy of a mass as the result of velocity along the unobserved dimension), then the observed distance/brightness verses red shift corresponds to a “flat” or balanced universe.
No Dark Energy and no Cosmological Constant is required.
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