SUMMARY: It's mostly empty, but space can still be a dangerous place for spacecraft. They're usually filled with delicate and sensitive scientific equipment, and the first major risk comes with launch. A typical rocket launch is so loud and violent that spacecraft can be shaken apart. Once in space, they need to deal with the temperature extremes, which can range hundreds of degrees above and below freezing. They're blasted by radiation from the Sun and cosmic rays which come from deep space. And the tiny dust in meteor showers can punch holes in the spacecraft because of their tremendous speed. Engineers need to account for all of these when designing them to survive.
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