I recently finished reading Tom Stafford's book on his life and times in and out of the space program. He flew on Gemini 6, Gemini 9, Apollo 10 and ASTP. In his book, he clearly states that he could see stars from space, but only during period when he was on the night side of the Earth or moon.
For those of you who are new (or are forgetful), longtime HB Bill Kaysing states that NASA blew up the Challenger, because Christa McAuliffe would say that she saw stars from space which is not the official NASA line. As usual, Bill can't get his story straight. Tom Stafford's statement is typical of my own experiences talking to various astronauts (about 30 or so) and not a one has said that you couldn't see stars from space.