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Why Does Time Fly?

Why Does Time Fly?

Today many scientist believe on Big Bang and time traveling because nobody wants to shake the primary assumptions, it is much more easier to repair the old models using new parameters, dimensions, strings and iron wire. For example, we think that the gravity pulls the pencil down to the floor if we drop it. However, we may find new routes and explanations if we have courage to assume that gravity pushes the pencil down to the floor. This simple reassessment will lead to very different and exciting conclusions compared to the traditional way of thinking; but of course, the final truth will be found by comparing different assumptions to the experimental observations.

Time may be regarded as a simple phenomenon or as a great mystery, depending on our point of view. It is easy to understand what the other physical or chemical base units represent, however, we may ask what does time measure and what is time made of?

We can measure length using the metric gauge and time using the clock. However, the clock measures the oscillation speed of the quartz crystal, the sundial measures the rotation speed of the earth and the calendar measures the orbital speed of the earth around the sun.

Time exists because the world is changing all the time. Time stops when all motion stops. However, without motion our world would die because the orbital motion of the celestial spheres and the atomic particles prevents the collapse of our world, i.e. time is made from the motion of our universe. Time is a relative phenomenon, because the speed of motion depends on the comparison point and because the speed of all processes depends on the local prevailing conditions.

In this respect time is not a base unit but a derived unit, which is created from motion and speed. Time is a very practical and handy tool, which makes it possible to arrange and organize events and activities in a reasonable order. However, time is not the fourth dimension, where we can freely move as we can in the other three dimensions. The other base units are also based on motion: Electric current is the motion of electrons, light intensity is the motion of photons, temperature is the oscillation of atoms and mass is the inertia of material when it is moved. Length gives the distance of the motion and the amount of substance gives the number of moving particles.

Time Machine

The time machine has already been invented, however, it only works forwards. Nearly all of us have such an apparatus in our home. We can easily test it by leaving one tomato for two weeks on the table and the other one in the fridge. Time passes more slowly in the fridge because the tomato that was in the fridge seems to be younger than the one on the table, because the low temperature slows down the chemical reactions.

A similar illusion may be created using two accurate clocks. One clock is placed on a plane and the other one on the ground. When the plane comes back, the clock on the plane seems to have lost some time. The large movement of the plane in the gravitational field slows down physical processes. This phenomenon is based on process and reaction kinetics and not on variation in time.

All internal motion and “time” stops at the speed of light. Light proceeds using waveform in the pervasive gravitational energy field at a relatively constant speed, like sound in the air. A homogenous energy field must exist because the speed of light does not depend on the light source speed, neither does it depend on the energy level of the radiation. The old “ether”, earlier assumed to exist, can not exist because a material medium would gradually slow down the speed of the photons, electrons and celestial spheres and such an effect has not been observed. However, even a most empty cubic meter in universe contains some particles (atoms, protons, photons, etc.), which may interact with gravity field and radiation in some extent.

The celestial spheres, i.e. material, create holes in the gravity field. The pressure of gravitation compresses the material and forces the atomic particles to slow down and this will also slow down time. The pressure of gravitation, high temperature and nuclear reactions transforms the material into energy in the sun. A black hole, gravity and low temperature transform this energy back into material, which may be released with other forms of energy in black hole collisions. There is a huge amount of dark material in space that is difficult to see because it does not emit light or other waveforms of energy, but it may be observed indirectly.

Gravity Fills the Space

Gravity fills the space and only material makes it visible; material is not the source of the gravity. Gravitation is not an inter-material pulling force; instead it is a propulsive force of space that pushes material together. The old Newtonian laws of gravity work nicely in local conditions because they are blind to the direction of the gravity field. However, in the large scale Newton and Einstein formulas do not agree with the experimental observations. For example, the observed expansion speed of universe is much larger than the calculated one. This error is so huge that some 70% of fictional “dark energy” is needed to compensate this apparent error. An other disagreement may be found between the calculated and observed Doppler shifts of Pioneer 10 and 11 radio signals.

On the other hand, we may also remember that the electric current flows in the opposite direction to what was originally concluded, but still the basic equations work. Any size of material particles speed up at exactly the same rate in the gravity flow. The mass of the material increases with the speed because the material interacts with the gravity field.

It is the pressure of the gravitation field that expands the universe, not some mystic dark energy. Gravitation turns into heat and other energy forms when it hits material, and this creates the 3 Kelvin cosmic background radiation glow, heats celestial spheres and has many other effects. Without this extra energy source the black body radiation would cool down the cosmic background radiation in a “few” years down to 0 Kelvin. The gravity field may be also one reason why lot of energy is needed to reach the absolute zero temperature in the laboratory. Gravity may even be the fuel of the universe, which feeds energy to the celestial systems.

The heat effect of the gravity field is difficult to measure with a calorimeter because this effect is smaller than the accuracy of a standard calorimeter and because we cannot insert the whole earth into a calorimeter. However, on a large scale the heat effect of the gravity field and nuclear reactions are palpable. This heat effect becomes evident some kilometers under our feet and also inside the other celestial spheres, making their core hot. Energy and material never disappear, they only be transformed; we can rely on this basic fact.

Center of the Universe

According to the latest observations the universe looks like the foam on the beer. The visible galaxies and material locate on the surfaces and edges of the individual bubbles of this cellular foam. Everything is rotating in orbits in our universe, so it is very probable that also the whole universe is rotating around some huge black holes. Ie. all the galaxies rotate around the same massive gravity wells, which may be the primary destination points for the gravity flow.

If the gravity flow has destination points then it should also have the source points. The secondary source points may locate in the middle of the cellular foam bubbles. From this location the gravity wind blows the material to the bubble surfaces. Usually all the energy and material circulates in the universe, therefore the primary source of the gravity could locate near the center of the universe; maybe the huge black holes transmit the gravity back to the universe using some unknown method.

If these logical guesses are right, then the center of the universe may be found from the midpoint of the orbital movement of all the galaxies. This orbital movement of the galaxies is difficult to observe because we have made observations only few years, but even now it seems that the galaxies move like string of pearls within the universe. The midpoints of our solar system and Milky Way are much easier and faster to find.

Fluid Dynamic Model of the Universe

The gravity-space approach will give a much more realistic and comprehensive understanding of the real universe than the old fictive time-space approach. Even the new string theory has not been able to explain the construction of the universe in spite of huge investments in this theory. Gravity-space standpoint could make it possible to model the movement of the tiny celestial spheres in the vast gravity ocean using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software with small modifications.

The earth and moon may be used to verify the necessary basic parameters for the fluid dynamic model of the universe. The gravity flows with high speed towards the spheres, which move slowly in this gravity energy ocean without friction. The volume ratio between space and matter is huge; the universe is like a sparse particle suspension.

The observed expansion of the universe has been decoded to support the Big Bang assumption, but who knows when expansion was started and when it will end? The Microsoft share price may increase this year but this does not prove that it will increase also next year. On the other hand, the complicated mathematical model of the universe is neither a valid evidence of the Big Bang if some fictive parameters are needed to reach the agreement with the experimental observations. Actually anything could be fitted using complicated models with some ten parameters and variables. These kinds of models tend to give correct answers if these answers are told to the model in the parameter fitting stage. Of course these kind of models may be useful to keep the skeptics silent.

Holy Assumptions

We still know less than 1% of the physical and chemical truth, so it is not wise to anchor our old assumptions if they do not agree with the experimental observations. Instead we should keep an open mind in order to go forward in our never-ending exploration. All inventions are based on new ideas and dreams, and they are the main driving force behind science, research and development. It is impossible to invent new ideas if we fear to test the old assumptions and make mistakes. An easy solution is to add new parameters to repair the old models but sometimes the reassessment of the old assumptions may give better results; at least we should have courage to test also some other assumptions than the traditional ones.

We cannot make the clock run in reverse or turn an old tomato into a young one, because it is impossible to change the direction of physical and chemical reactions which contain random factors. We do not need to worry about the disturbance of cause and effect because the present time is and was the only existing time. Juice may quickly be changed into wine by changing the speed of the natural processes, but we can travel in time only in our minds, because time is an illusion but gravity is the real thing.

However, time is flying because our world is changing all the time; change is the cause and time is the effect. Continuous change is a great thing because the human mind prefers insecurity to boredom. Time flies faster at the point that is moving slower, according to the Theory of Relativity. It is funny that time also flies faster in the human mind as the number of years increases and our physical speed decreases.

Dr. Antti Roine, March 12, 2005

Some References

Aristoteles may have been one of the first to assume that time is made of the movement.

Professor Petr Beckmann proposed to replace the word "Aether" with "Gravity", but he did not think, "Gravity fills the space".
- Beckmann, P. 1987. Einstein Plus Two, Golem Press, Boulder, CO.

Bryan G. Wallace found that the speed of light might be not exactly constant. However, he did not mention that the speed might depend on the gravitation field.
- Wallace, B.G. 1969. "Radar Testing of the Relative Velocity of Light in Space," Spectroscopic Letters, 2, 361.
- Wallace, B.G. 1983. Letter to the Editor, Physics Today, 36, 1.

The calculated Doppler shifts of Pioneer 10 and 11 radio signals do not agree with the experimentally observed Doppler shifts. Pioneer 10/11 speeds seem to decrease too much.
- Renshaw, C. 1999. "Explanation of the Anomalous Doppler Observations in Pioneer 10 and 11," Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf., 2, 59-63.

Ronald R. Hatch has found disagreements between experimental observations and Einstein theories.
- Hatch, R.R. 1992. Escape from Einstein, Kneat Company, Wilmington, CA.

Häfele-Keating experiment does not measure time dilation instead they measure rate of the processes.
- Häfele, J.C. and Keating, R.E. 1972. "Around-the-world Atomic Clock: Measured Relativistic Time Gains," Science, 177, 168-170.

A nice draft map of the universe and Milky Way:
- http://www.anzwers.org/free/universe/universe.html
- http://www.anzwers.org/free/universe/galaxy.html

PS: Please be free to use this column in journals, magazines and other media.

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Wrong!
Scientists have never believed that the earth was flat.
One has to go back to 6000BC to find evidence that pople believed that the earth was flat.
What you are referring to is a couple of people in Paris who trumped up a woo woo about the Church etc believing the world was flat when they never believed anything of the sort,
The Egyptians measured the radius of the earth thousands of years ago so why did they do this if the believed it was flat?
Lyndon

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Re: Why Does Time Fly?

Welcome to the board.

Originally Posted by Antti
Why Does Time Fly?
Because were havin' fun! :wink:

4. Originally Posted by lyndonashmore
The Egyptians measured the radius of the earth thousands of years ago so why did they do this if the believed it was flat?
Lyndon
(Nitpick mode) Ummmm...aren't you thinking of Eratosthenes? He wasn't Egyptian, he was a Greek born in Cyrene (present day Libya). The ancient Egyptians actually viewed the world as a flat platter of clay floating in an immense sea.

Psi-less

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Re: Why Does Time Fly?

Originally Posted by R.A.F.
Welcome to the board.

Originally Posted by Antti
Why Does Time Fly?
Because were havin' fun! :wink:
Who, me?

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Originally Posted by Psi-less
Originally Posted by lyndonashmore
The Egyptians measured the radius of the earth thousands of years ago so why did they do this if the believed it was flat?
Lyndon
(Nitpick mode) Ummmm...aren't you thinking of Eratosthenes? He wasn't Egyptian, he was a Greek born in Cyrene (present day Libya). The ancient Egyptians actually viewed the world as a flat platter of clay floating in an immense sea.

Psi-less
What 500 years ago?

7. Originally Posted by Antti
A similar illusion may be created using two accurate clocks. One clock is placed on a plane and the other one on the ground. When the plane comes back, the clock on the plane seems to have lost some time. The large movement of the plane in the gravitational field slows down physical processes. This phenomenon is based on process and reaction kinetics and not on variation in time.
AFAIK in order to observe time dilatation in a gravitational field you don't need to move one of the clocks; it is enough to keep them at different "altitudes".

Originally Posted by lyndonashmore
What 500 years ago?
Maybe he is talking about Columbus and the contemporary discussions about his voyage; actually the dilemma wasn't if the Earth is flat or round but if Columbus could reach the Indies by going west with the limited range of that era's ships.

8. Originally Posted by lyndonashmore
What 500 years ago?
Now where is "500 years ago" coming from? You said, "The Egyptians measured the radius of the earth thousands of years ago so why did they do this if the believed it was flat?" (emphasis added by me).

Psi-less

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Re: Why Does Time Fly?

Originally Posted by Antti
Only five hundred years ago scientist believed that the earth is flat
The intellectuals of the age knew the Earth was round. It was dangerous business saying so because the Catholic Church view it as a denial of God. That was serious business; they would kill you for it. The result was that most people spoke about the shape of the Earth in private, but carried the Church's position in public.

Originally Posted by Antti
Today scientist believe on Big Bang and time traveling because nobody wants to shake the primary assumptions
Lots of people are shaking those ideas. The big bang has some problems, but so far it's the best model going.

Originally Posted by Antti
we think that the gravity pulls the pencil down to the floor if we drop it
We think the pencil falls because gravity warps the space between the center of the Earth and the pencil. There's no pulling.

Originally Posted by Antti
Time exists because the world is changing all the time.
You are using the word to define itself. Time exists because objects have more than one three dimensional shape or size. We interpret this as meaning that they change with time.

Originally Posted by Antti
time is not the fourth dimension, where we can freely move as we can in the other three dimensions.
Sure it is. We move freely, both directions, but we interpret the order as an arrow of time. It is this interpretatation that appears to restrict us from motion in both temporal directions.

Originally Posted by Antti
A black hole, gravity and low temperature transform this energy back into material, which may be released with other forms of energy in black hole collisions.
A black hole is all about high temperatures. No known mechanism releases energy from black hole collisions.

Originally Posted by Antti
Gravitation is not an inter-material pulling force; instead it is a propulsive force of space that pushes material together.
Gravity is no force at all. It is a change in the shape of space time. Materials move together because gravity removes some of the space between them. At large scales space is inserted between objects, which is a negative warpage of space-time that can be thought of as anti-gravity.

Originally Posted by Antti
The mass of the material increases with the speed because the material interacts with the gravity field.
The mass increases because the energy of the extra speed has a mass equivalent.

Originally Posted by Antti
Gravitation turns into heat and other energy forms when it hits material
Try again.

Originally Posted by Antti
The gravity field is also one reason why the absolute zero temperature is difficult to reach in the laboratory.
Since we come a billion times closer to absolute zero than 3 Kelvin, there is nothing that substantiates this claim.

Originally Posted by Antti
on a large scale the heat effect of the gravity field and nuclear reactions are palpable.
Do you have any observations to support this, or are you just guessing?

Originally Posted by Antti
This heat effect [of gravity] becomes evident some kilometers under our feet and also inside the other celestial spheres
We have satisfactory explanations for such heat that do not require gravity.

Originally Posted by Antti
The volume ratio between space and matter is huge
It is approximately 100,000 cubic centimeters per proton.

Originally Posted by Antti
We cannot make the clock run in reverse or turn an old tomato into a young one
How would you know if it did run in reverse since you would interpret the young tomato as having happened first?

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Originally Posted by lyndonashmore
Wrong!
Scientists have never believed that the earth was flat.
One has to go back to 6000BC to find evidence that pople believed that the earth was flat.
What you are referring to is a couple of people in Paris who trumped up a woo woo about the Church etc believing the world was flat when they never believed anything of the sort,
The Egyptians measured the radius of the earth thousands of years ago so why did they do this if the believed it was flat?
Lyndon
Sorry dude,

I can't let such a statement stand without challenge.

If you need more I'll site my kids 4th grade history text.

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Originally Posted by Space Monkey
Originally Posted by lyndonashmore
Wrong!
Scientists have never believed that the earth was flat.
One has to go back to 6000BC to find evidence that pople believed that the earth was flat.
What you are referring to is a couple of people in Paris who trumped up a woo woo about the Church etc believing the world was flat when they never believed anything of the sort,
The Egyptians measured the radius of the earth thousands of years ago so why did they do this if the believed it was flat?
Lyndon
Sorry dude,

I can't let such a statement stand without challenge.

If you need more I'll site my kids 4th grade history text.
Well actually there was
• Eratosthenes of Cyrene
Born: 276 BC in Cyrene, North Africa (now Shahhat, Libya)
Died: 194 BC in Alexandria, Egypt
He writes in a treatise, now lost, called "On the measurement of the Earth" that the world is round and gives an estimate of its diameter as 250,000 stadia. I'm too tired right now to describe the method, but I am sure that I will get To Seeked before I get back to work out here on the west coast tomorrow. :wink:

He later went on to give estimates of the distance to the moon (780,000 stadia) and the sun (804,000,000 stadia) using date obtained during lunar eclipses. He was later quoted by an assistant as saying "Damn, that's a lota stadia baby!! "

OK... OK... I made that last part up. :P

There are arguments about just how long a stadium is, but some estimates of its length make Eratosthenes' estimates look pretty good.

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Originally Posted by Space Monkey
Originally Posted by lyndonashmore
Wrong!
Scientists have never believed that the earth was flat.
One has to go back to 6000BC to find evidence that pople believed that the earth was flat.
What you are referring to is a couple of people in Paris who trumped up a woo woo about the Church etc believing the world was flat when they never believed anything of the sort,
The Egyptians measured the radius of the earth thousands of years ago so why did they do this if the believed it was flat?
Lyndon
Sorry dude,

I can't let such a statement stand without challenge.

If you need more I'll site my kids 4th grade history text.
Challenge accepted.
The Catholic church did not believe that the earth was flat.
In point of fact in 1500 and something the Pope wrote a 'Papal Bull' (edict) dividing the round world into two halves. This was to stop the two biggest catholic countries, Spain and Portugal coming to blows. Spain was exploring more and more to the west and Portugal was exploring more and more to the East - so it was clear to the Pope that since they knew the world was round, that if they continued,they would meet somewhere at the other side and fight. The pope split the world into two hemispheres. One side was given to spain the other to Portugal with the proviso that any country that had a christian king before christmas day was to be left independent.
This was before the americas were mainly known about.
All this stuff about a flat earth is a woo woo from the late 19th century
Don't believe everything your kids learn at school.
Lyndon

13. Re: Why Does Time Fly?

Originally Posted by Antti
Only five hundred years ago scientist believed that the earth is flat
The intellectuals of the age knew the Earth was round. It was dangerous business saying so because the Catholic Church view it as a denial of God. That was serious business; they would kill you for it. The result was that most people spoke about the shape of the Earth in private, but carried the Church's position in public.
Apparantly only until about 700AD. The Ethical Atheist website gives a fairly detailed chronology of flat earth thinking, and notes that in early Christian times 'round earth' views could get you in trouble, however:

In our view, the Venerable Bede (673-735 CE) represents a major turning point. He not only wrote of a spherical earth, but he did so without the cautious approach described above. This seems to indicate that a spherical view is widely held AND that the Church is not concerned about a scriptural conflict. Bede is also a major turning point because medieval writers who followed him quoted him frequently.
The site notes the first instances of round earth views with the Greeks, noting that there is evidence that other ancient cultures viewed the Earth as flat. There is no mention of the Egyptians though.

14. Originally Posted by lyndonashmore
What you are referring to is a couple of people in Paris who trumped up a woo woo about the Church etc believing the world was flat when they never believed anything of the sort,
Googling "Catholic" and "earth was flat" did turn up a lot of sites that reported that in the 18th (19th?) century a Frenchman and an American were the originators of "medieval Christians believed in a flat earth". I haven't looked into it much further though.

15. Originally Posted by lyndonashmore
The Egyptians measured the radius of the earth thousands of years ago so why did they do this if the believed it was flat?
Lyndon
Googling around all I can find is that ancient Egyptians believed the Earth was flat. Eratosthenes was in Egypt when he derived the diameter of the Earth, so perhaps this was what you were thinking of?

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Originally Posted by TriangleMan
Originally Posted by lyndonashmore
The Egyptians measured the radius of the earth thousands of years ago so why did they do this if the believed it was flat?
Lyndon
Googling around all I can find is that ancient Egyptians believed the Earth was flat. Eratosthenes was in Egypt when he derived the diameter of the Earth, so perhaps this was what you were thinking of?
Yep, he told the egyptians about it when he was there.
Lyndon.
P.S. It was late when I wrote that bit! The two who dreampt up the church and flat earth were in paris(?) at the same time but I don't think there is any reason to believe that they met. I am going from memory so the odd detail may be slightly out. However the idea of scientists or the church believing in a 'flat earth' is way out.
keep googling.

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IIRC, it was an "improved" measurement of the Earth's circumference that let to the Colombus voyage. Eratosthenes' ancient measurement was remarkably accurate. No European in the middle ages knew about the America's, and knew that it would be impossible bring sufficient supplies to cover the 15000 miles over the ocean to the Far East. With the voyages of Marco Polo, they had a good idea of how far away the orient was from Europe. Add to that the "improved" measurement of 15000 miles for the Earth's circumference (made by some "enlightened" European mathemeticians) and you can conclude that India is at most only a couple thousand miles West of Europe. I also read stories about sailors who refused to sail out of sight of land, but that was not because they were afraid of falling off of the Earth. Just watching the stars as you go south can demonstrate that the Earth is round in the north-south direction proving that it is either a cylinder or a sphere, but definitely not flat. In addition, I can't imagine a sailor at that time who was not intimately familiar with using the sun and stars for navigation. The real reason why sailors might have refused to sail with Colombus is navigation. The primitive navagation at the time made it very difficult to determine latitude with sufficient accuracy unless you remain in sight of land. The problem of longitude would not be solved for another 400 years.

18. Originally Posted by lyndonashmore
However the idea of scientists or the church believing in a 'flat earth' is way out.
keep googling.
I didn't bother to look for more on whether or not someone in the 19th century promoted a myth that medieval people thought the Earth was flat -the link I provided in a previous post seems to indicate that belief in a spherical Earth was widely held at the time, which I felt was the more important issue.

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Lyndon

Many thanks for the qreat discussion and for the corrections. I did not mean that all scientist believe on flat earth or time travelling before Columbus arrived to America. Yes, ofcourse there may be found lot of wisdom from ancient Egypt, Greece, South America, etc. which has been lost for some centuries because the internet did not exist. This is well documented in the official history books.

However, I must really admit that I did not realize how much official history books exaggerate "flat earth" myth of Dark Ages. I feel that you are right - it is more myth than a fact. Sceptical humans are needed to reveal the myths.

There seems to be lot of errors, myths and fakes in official books of history, physics, chemistry, medicine, religion, etc. I am sure that gradually these errors will be fixed. However, I also believe that this will be an eternal project for the mankind, because new correct answers generate always new questions. I like this system, because I hate to get bored.

Antti

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Re: Why Does Time Fly?

Many thanks for the inspiring answers. However, I still wonder:

1. Why the speed of light is constant ?

2. How we can be sure that gravity pulls the pencil ?
Or are the propabilities: pull 50% and push 50% ?

3. How we can measure that gravity warps the space ?

4. What is the source and destination of the gravity ?

5. Why some extra parameters are needed to fit the experimental observations to the Theory of Relativity ?
Anything could be fitted using complicated model with some ten parameters and variables. Ten parameters may be fitted by giving some correct experimental answers to the model. Then it is not a miracle that the model calculates the correct answers with these parameters. The complicated model is not an valid evidence, it may only help to keep the skeptics silent.

6. Why in chemistry we talk of the kinetics when the rate of the reactions and processed change but in physics we talk of time dilation ?

7. What is time ?

In any case I feel an open discussion very important, it is the only way to the correct conclusions.

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btw, antti, welcome to the babb !!

22. "Time flies like an arrow. Fruit flies like a banana."
-Groucho Marx

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Originally Posted by Antti
Lyndon

Many thanks for the qreat discussion and for the corrections. I did not mean that all scientist believe on flat earth or time travelling before Columbus arrived to America. Yes, ofcourse there may be found lot of wisdom from ancient Egypt, Greece, South America, etc. which has been lost for some centuries because the internet did not exist. This is well documented in the official history books.

However, I must really admit that I did not realize how much official history books exaggerate "flat earth" myth of Dark Ages. I feel that you are right - it is more myth than a fact. Sceptical humans are needed to reveal the myths.

There seems to be lot of errors, myths and fakes in official books of history, physics, chemistry, medicine, religion, etc. I am sure that gradually these errors will be fixed. However, I also believe that this will be an eternal project for the mankind, because new correct answers generate always new questions. I like this system, because I hate to get bored.

Antti
appologies from me. you had a good post that was spoiled by the first line (which was incorrect) This myth had to be corrected. sorry!
Why not post the thread again without the erroneous first line? that way your real thrust will get discussed.
Welcome to the board and the trial by fire.
The discusssion that you provoked on the flat earth was good though - and still is..

24. Re: Why Does Time Fly?

Originally Posted by Antti

Many thanks for the inspiring answers. However, I still wonder:

1. Why the speed of light is constant ?
So let's get into the the heavy stuff. The speed of light is constant because that is the nature of light. Anything without rest mass must move at the speed of light.

2. How we can be sure that gravity pulls the pencil ?
Or are the propabilities: pull 50% and push 50% ?
Gravity is the name of the thing that pulls the pencil to the earth. It is a bit of tautology, but the nature of gravity is not been full elucidated.

3. How we can measure that gravity warps the space ?
Quite easy, thanks to Einstein (more or less). The warping of space is directly related to the pull of gravity. It's a fancier way of showing Newton's gravity, but has the bonus of describing things Newton couldn't.

4. What is the source and destination of the gravity ?
Supposedly the graviton is the particle transmitting gravity. String theory would probably give a complete explanation.

5. Why some extra parameters are needed to fit the experimental observations to the Theory of Relativity ?
Anything could be fitted using complicated model with some ten parameters and variables. Ten parameters may be fitted by giving some correct experimental answers to the model. Then it is not a miracle that the model calculates the correct answers with these parameters. The complicated model is not an valid evidence, it may only help to keep the skeptics silent.
I eagerly await some other post to explain this.

6. Why in chemistry we talk of the kinetics when the rate of the reactions and processed change but in physics we talk of time dilation ?
Because the observer effect in watching kinetics is static. None of the events are happening at speeds or energies that require consideration of dilation. Even in physics, time dilation only becomes measureable under very extreme conditions.

7. What is time ?
movement. the change over a given distance.

In any case I feel an open discussion very important, it is the only way to the correct conclusions.
Well, if anyone has better answers, I am definitely willing to learn.

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Re: Why Does Time Fly?

Originally Posted by Antti
5. Why some extra parameters are needed to fit the experimental observations to the Theory of Relativity ?
Anything could be fitted using complicated model with some ten parameters and variables. Ten parameters may be fitted by giving some correct experimental answers to the model. Then it is not a miracle that the model calculates the correct answers with these parameters. The complicated model is not an valid evidence, it may only help to keep the skeptics silent.
Which parameters? What observations? I can't comment on your questions without specifics. This article suggests Relativity works pretty good.

26. Re: Why Does Time Fly?

Originally Posted by Lord Jubjub
Originally Posted by Antti

7. What is time ?
movement. the change over a given distance.
:-? Motion is a change in distance over time, not the other way around. You end up using time in the definition of time.

Time is the apparent progression of events in the way the human brain organizes such things as cause and event.

Time might be the hardest thing to visualize.

I like the post above that said 3 dimensional objects have a 4th dimensional extention that gives them many shapes. Quite a good description of time if you ask me.

27. Re: Why Does Time Fly?

Originally Posted by Antti

Many thanks for the inspiring answers. However, I still wonder:

2. How we can be sure that gravity pulls the pencil ?
Or are the propabilities: pull 50% and push 50% ?
Layman's answer: we have something to pull the pencil, namely the earth. What is there to push the pencil? Everytime you release the pencil, it will fall straight down (or up, doesn't matter) to the earth, so the push force should be on the other side of the pencil, but there's nothing that is there (all the time), or it should be inside the pencil, but then we still don't have a reson why it would fall towards the earth and not towards the nearest tree or so. So the most logical conclusion is that gravity pulls, not that it pushes.

28. Order of Kilopi
Join Date
Nov 2003
Posts
6,197

Re: Why Does Time Fly?

Originally Posted by Antti

Many thanks for the inspiring answers. However, I still wonder:

1. Why the speed of light is constant ?
The speed of light is not “constant”. Einstein withdrew his “constancy postulate” in 1912. He wrote about why it was not true in several papers from 1912-1916. He explained why it was not correct.

However, a myth grew up about it, and quite a lot of people believed it was true, long after he stopped believing it was true.

One of the main reasons for the myth is because if an atomic clock is used to measure the local speed of light, at the clock, the clock will measure “c” as the speed. This is because a local gravity field on a planet or star will slow down the light speed and will slow down the atomic clock tick rate at about the same amount. In strong gravity an atomic clock tick rate will slow down and the speed of light will slow down in the same place, thus producing the illusion that light speed is always “c”. However, if we use a local atomic clock to measure the speed of light in a different place, such as when it is passing near the massive sun, then we will record a speed lower than “c” for the speed of light as it passes the massive body.

Likewise, if we measure the speed of light at sea level, with an atomic clock located at sea level, the speed will be measured at “c”, but as the light climbs upward and away from the gravity of the earth, its speed will speed up a little. So, the speed of light is variable and the tick rates of atomic clocks are variable. Because of this double phenomenon, the local speed of light will generally be measured at “c” at the place where ever a local atomic clock is located. This double phenomenon has led to the myth that the speed of light is always “constant” relative to everyone and all observers. But The Master knew that this wasn’t true, as he explained here:

First Statement from, “Theory of Relativity”, 1915; Second Statement from, “Relativity and Gravitation”, 1912:

First and Second Statements from, “Relativity and Gravitation”, 1912:

See Volume 4 of “The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein.” The paperback version of Vol. 4 contains the English translations of his 1912-1915 papers in which he withdrew his “constancy” postulate.

29. So, Sam, he actually said "I withdraw the constancy of the speed of light postulate?" Those photocopies of papers you link to could be from anywhere written by anyone who only knew a smattering of german. And, again, in his latter years Einstein was grasping at straws trying to find a unified field theory.

And you do mean in a vacuum, right? Light does not propogate at 'c' in an atmosphere...

30. Re: Why Does Time Fly?

Originally Posted by Sam5
The speed of light is not “constant”. Einstein withdrew his “constancy postulate” in 1912. He wrote about why it was not true in several papers from 1912-1916. He explained why it was not correct.
Reading from the links you gave, it is clear that Einstein did not withdraw the postulate or say it was not correct.
He says that it is necessary to abandon it, because it is limited.
And as a matter of fact, it is not one of the postulate of his General Theory of Relativity.

The postulate of the constancy of the speed of light (in empty space) is limited to inertial frames of reference and regions where the gravitational potential is constant.
The postulate is still valid where the Special Theory of Relativity can be applied.
There is a reason why the two theories have been given slightly different names.

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