Extended Standard Model
For this theory it is proposed that the standard model of QM is doubled by adding particles with negative mass to the existing fermions. The standard bosons remain the same, leaving the electro-weak and strong forces unchanged.
By definition, classically p=mv, an object with negative mass would propagate in a direction opposite to its momentum. Taking the derivative with time gives us that acceleration is in the opposite direction of the net force.
This complicates our standard vocabulary, which relies on the intuition that mass is positive. Much confusion can be alleviated by clearing up our vocabulary.
Push and Pull should be used when discussion forces and momentum.
Attract and Repel should be used when discussing acceleration and velocities.
For a positive mass push=attract and pull=repel.
For a negative mass push=repel and pull=attract.
For example, let us consider gravity. It has been shown (Bondy 1957) that negative mass is consistent with GR, so long as we maintain the equivalence principle, even in sign.
Like masses will pull each other, while unlike masses will push each other.
Thus, positive masses attract all masses while negative masses repel all masses.
Given an initially uniform even distribution of positive and negative mass, gravity alone could cause the positive mass to condense into the observed gravitationally attracting units surrounded by a uniform density negative energy region similar to the Large Scale Honeycomb structure of the universe and causing the Hubble Flow. We will call this the Hubble Flow Medium (HFM).
The strong force pulls objects together. For positive mass matter this causes a strong attraction. For negative mass matter this would cause a strong repulsion, making even the simplest of negative energy baryonic matter very short lived. Since quarks are unstable in isolation, the HFM should be expected to be composed solely of negative mass leptons.
Eventually the parity breaking Electro-Weak force is required to explain the abundance of matter relative to anti-matter we presently observe. Currently, the known parity breaking mechanisms are far less than what is required.
With gravity condensing the positive mass matter, this could result in an amplification of the weak force's parity breaking mechanism that works to produce a repulsion between matter and anti-matter. This would result in a pattern of isolated matter and anti-matter dominated gravitationally bound regions, reducing the need for eliminating large amounts of anti-matter.
Obviously, we live in a gravitationally bound region dominated by the Shapely Supercluster that is composed of matter.
Aside from the lack of scattering, one of the biggest obstacles for tired light is that the predicted Hubble redshift is not observed in stars within our local group of Galaxies.
This model of the universe allows this to be explained by the fact that negative matter is not expected to be found within gravitationally bound regions, with the slowing down of light being a property of the HFM.
The mechanism for slowing down light can not be Compton scattering, the medium absorbing and re-emitting the photons, as this would disperse the light until it appeared as a uniform glow in all directions. The CMBR is such an illuminescence, and its deviations from a thermal distribution may be due to the emission lines and resonances of the HFM.
Gravitational lensing is also not an option, because gravity is conservative and the redshift would be restored.
The spin of a photon suggests that the weak force may be non-trivial on a Hubble scale, providing a mechanism to transfer momentum from the photons to the HFM, causing the light to slow down with distance.
Thus our universe need not be expanding, although this theory does meld well with the dispersion cosmology previously described by Icarus2 to explain repulsive peculiar velocities relative to the Hubble Flow.
Indeed, his work justifies my claim above that positive and negative mass would produce the Honeycomb structure of our universe.