cont... To Explain the Perception of Time and the current Time Problem of QM.
Timelessness and the Crux of the Problem
So, I am beginning this complete set-up of understanding the current problem in physics: the unification of Quantum Theory and Relativity theories - of course, such an approach requires that our knowledge of high energy physics is correct. But there is a prevailing uncertainty just how to do this at the moment. There seems to be a number of problems in our attempt at unification and one such problem is the infamous Time Problem of General Relativity. This thread in fact has a lot to do with the models I have been investigating recently, spin networks and Causal Triangulation of spacetime. In my previous thread in this subforum I challenged the idea that space and time where not truely fundamental since our universe arose with no such spatial or temporal freedoms.
In essence, when you quantize the famous Einstein field equations, you end up with what is called the Wheeler de Witt equation;
Normally on the right hand side, we would see the presence of a time derivative. However, this equation should have ended up something like your usual energy schrodinger equation, but for an entire universe, this does not seem to be possible.
The fact there is a vanishing time derivative, this had led to the interpretation that the universe, time atleast, from a global sense does not exist, that the universe is really about static time. This can seem at first like a big of a gee whiz moment, because time being static seems very exotic. However, there maybe still a new way to view this and I will tackle this from Fotini Markoupoulou's stance of time, which we will cover soon and to which I will add new concepts. I don't add them frivoulously, this is still a real science.
Now, of course, there maybe those still out there shrouded by the veil called time, they cannot see past their own experiences. We do afterall sense time pass, so why should we believe time does not exist? Surely if we experience time, there must be some corresponding physical application to the world at large. Well, over the years of studies I have made, this ''feeling'' of time might just be that: simply a feeling. The psychological arrow of time actually explains really well why we may feel a ''directionality to time''. This directionality of time is the arrow of time many people abuse, thinking it has a real consequence on physical reality. As observers, we experience a local time, but what does it mean when we talk about a ''global time'' or a ''local time''?
A global time, is a time encompassed, or experienced by clocks inside of the universe. It is concerned with many groups of systems and never one alone. If one could sit outside the universe, we would actually view it as a static system. In a way to justify that claim, which Barbour does not do in his paper but does mention this fact, is through the weak measurement physics. In quantum cosmology, Prof. Steven Hawking believes we must veiw the universe like an atom. So indeed, if we were to view the universe from outside  then the energy content would not change. In fact, if we actually could, then we could measure the universes energy. It is well-known that the universe in totality cannot have a very well-defined energy unless someone was to actually measure it; and if no superintelligence exists then perhaps we may assume that the energy cannot be defined.
Local time is the asymptotic time everyone comes to agree on: we all experience time, this cannot be denied. Time seems to be strictly local in this sense, local to bodies like ourselves, including even electrons  and perhaps other particles which experience zitter motion. By this reasoning, many believe, including myself that time is not in fact global, that global time does not exist and if anyone can speak about time, it must be purely local. But I now raise an important question --- ''surely then there is a major difference to saying no time exists than saying that a static time exists for a universe?''
Well, yes it does. In fact, static time may not even exist. It perhaps only makes sense to speak of static time when fields came into existence which broke the static nature. Indeed, time may not even exist fundamentally - this is the same as saying that time does not exist. We shall see why soon.
Since we are on the subject of observers, we may as well talk about one special part of the human observer which points to evidence that time is really something we experience and does not exist independant of the human. There is in fact a biological reason for experiencing time - there is a gene regulation inside the brain called the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus. This is one prominent reason among the scientific community to why we even sense a time pass.
And thus the question is asked, why does it seem like time exists then? Why should we experience time if it does not exist? What makes us so special?
It's not that we are special per se, but we are in an important energy phase of the universe, called the low energy phase. The low energy phase happened late in the universe's history - do not mistake ''late'' as implying a time however. This is where the english language breaks down and we need to use different approaches to explain what we mean. There can be change in Julian Barbours eye's, but there is no such thing as a time. So can we reconcile change without time?
Yes, we can. It may not seem obvious at first, but things like the zeno effect gives us evidence that even if time really did exist, systems don't need to change.
So what is fundamental time? Fotini Markoupoulou created this type of time understanding. However, she takes this fundamental time as real, but I take it as not being real. The reason why I do not agree with Markoupoulou on this one, is because of her own reasoning. Geometry did not appear till very late in the universes history, so we must infer that time did not exist either if indeed Minkowski space is the correct representation for the low energy epoch. Of course, for this reason, fundamental time would be the application of a time dimension when the energies in the universe were very high. But if geometry did not exist, then the universe was born without time. Therefore time is not really fundamental at all. To explain this better, I labelled this as ''induced time''.
So, if I am saying time did not appear until geometry appeared, am I saying time really exists? The answer to this is ''no'', because induced time is not the same as a real existing time. If you like, the time anything experienced in the low energy epoch is in fact a by-product of slow moving systems; it appears when matter appears. Geometrogenesis is the science of physics and cosmology concerned with the appearance of matter. It wasn't until the phase space of the universe broke symmetries did the original photon fields or other radiation fields gave way to the matter fields which now dominate our portion of the universe. Therefore, geometrogenesis does in fact dictate, not predict, but dictate that time could not exist before the dimensions of space emerged: time is afterall a space dimension, it is called the imaginary space dimension - an imaginary leg off the spacetime triangle.
Then we must ask, well, if geometry and matter appeared late in the universes history, we ask also then whether time appears from such a geometry? If so, then time is emergent, it is an induced phenomenon which appears alongside the usual suspects: those being space and matter. We cannot infer gravity directly because gravity can exist without matter. So curvature can still exist without matter - it just comes in a different guise, a radiation field which don't even have clocks which can tick off real time. (Hopefully everyone knows that photons do not experience time, including any type of radiation.) Relativity cannot deal with time and radiation together in such a way.
 - It is still impractical however to think anyone can sit outside the universe and view the energy content of the universe because according to relativity, there is no such thing as an outside to the universe; however saying that some theories like certain classes of string theory entertain that our universe is in fact ''bubble like'' floating in a multidimensional pool.
 - In fact, electrons have internal degrees of freedom, a special clock. The electron clock has been theorized and written upon by David Hestenes. It seems the electron clock has been varified.