Peculiar motions of Galaxies
In Dynamic Universe Model – Galaxies in a cluster are rotating and revolving. Depending on the position of observer’s position relative to the set of galaxies, some may appear to move away, and some may appear to come near. The observer may also be residing in a solar system, revolving around the center of Milky Way in a local group. He is observing the galaxies outside. Many times he can observe only the coming near or going away component of the light ray called Hubble components. The other direction cosines of the movement may not be possible to measure exactly in many cases. It is an immensely complicated problem to untangle the two and pin point the cause of non–Hubble velocities. (See JV.Narlikar, (1983).) ‘Near by Galaxies Atlas’ published by Tully and Fischer contains detailed maps and distribution of speeds of Galaxies in the relatively local region. The multi component model used by them uses the method of least squares. Hence we can say that Galactic velocities are possible in all the directions.
So in this model both red shift and blue shift of galaxies are possible simultaneously in all directions and at all distances from us. That depends only on location of distant rotating and revolving cluster.
We can visualize very easily, every galaxy will have many velocities super imposed on it. If the going away velocity component is more, it is Red Shifted; otherwise it will be Blue Shifted. These are called Peculiar motions of Galaxies
Giant wheel analogy
Let’s start with an analogy. Imagine one person standing near a giant wheel in a children’s park. When the wheel is rotating and the person is standing on the axis of wheel, he will see all the buckets moving and none come near or go away. When the person is standing in the plane of giant wheel rotation, he will see some buckets come near at the top and some go away at the bottom. All the other buckets will have some upward motion or downward motion, combined with either coming near or going away. Depending on the person’s position relative to the plane of rotation, the overall effect of buckets going away or coming near will vary. It is peculiar motion of buckets in the plane. Peculiar motion can be in any direction in the three dimensional sphere from the center.
Now, let us imagine 10 such giant wheels rotating about each other and such 6 sets of (10 giant wheels in each set, of course both 6 & 10 are arbitrary numbers) rotating giant wheels rotating about each other all in different planes. These giant wheels, can be rotating about each other, when there no huge central mass. No problem. All depends on their positions and instantaneous velocities. Imagine yourself in one bucket and observing a distant bucket in different giant wheel with a telescope. You can see only observed bucket going away or coming near. That observed giant wheel will have a bigger velocity component of going away super imposed on its coming near component of velocity in the observed motion of bucket. In a 3 dimensional space there are many directions. Very few can come near purely towards you (Blue-shift). All the others will have some component of going away (red-shift). This red-shift component is readily measured in the case of a Galaxy, which is having its own peculiar motion. Here one can visualize why Blue-shifted galaxies (or the buckets in our analogy without any outgoing velocity component) are less.
Transparent Globe analogy
Now lets assume a Transparent Globe instead of a rotating wheel, it is a rotating Globe surface. Let’s say it is the surface of rotating transparent earth map globe, where all the country maps are printed on that surface. We can very easily visualize the countries approaching you will be less than 1/8 th of the total surface area. Others may not create an approaching scenario. Hence in such case maximum 1/8 th of the Galaxies will be approaching you.
Now lets take the case of rotating transparent globe, where the mutually rotating galaxies are placed in side of globe anywhere. In such case we can very easily visualize, that it may be only 1/16 th of the total Galaxies will be blue shifted. Or it can be zero. That depends on the relative locations of the rotating galaxies and the distance between the center of cluster to centers of galaxies.
Now after visualizing all the three above cases, we can say that, the number of blue shifted galaxies depends on the physical positions of the galaxies, and their total number in the cluster, and the relative position with respect to each other and with respect to us. Hence the number of blue shifted galaxies will depend on place to place. While fixing the Z values for the galaxies, our astronomers will do some grouping depending on neighboring galaxies. Here also some of the blue shifted galaxies may get some other fitment.
The whole scenario will change if the observer himself is located in side of the rotating sphere. Then the movement of the local group with respect to him self will depend on his own perspective angle and position.
Finally lets assume that, there are two transparent rotating spheres that have self-rotation and both are revolving with respect to each other. It is some thing like two clusters rotating and revolving with respect to each other. You are stationed in one of them, and in one galaxy. You try to observe the other one and count the number of galaxies approaching you. The blue shifted galaxies will always be less. But there will be some. It is because this involves a complex movement scenario.
Dynamic universe Model simulations for Blue shifted Galaxies showing Orbit formations
The universe assumed to be heterogeneous and anisotropic. This situation is clearly shown in the output pictures formed from this Model. These pictures show from the starting points to final stabilized orbits of masses involved. Advantage with Dynamic Universe Model is that it can operate on inhomogeneous and anisotropic starting conditions. Because of this dynamism, the universe does not collapse into a lump (due to Newtonian static forces). This Model depicts the three dimensional orbit formations of involved masses or celestial bodies like in our present universe. From the resulting graphs one can see the orbit formations of the point masses, which were positioned randomly at the start. An orbit formation means some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red shifted).
Graph: G1: starting pictures of xy positions of Clusters (right) and Globular Clusters (left), x and y axes scales represent distances in meters. These masses are randomly on xyz axes. An orbit formation means some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red shifted).
Graph G8 represent the positions of all masses in this simulation, after seven time-steps. We can see the formation of some three-dimensional circles clearly. That means orbit formation.