# Thread: Inflation, decelerating expansion and accelerating expansion due to negative mass

1. ## Inflation, decelerating expansion and accelerating expansion due to negative mass

Hello,
I'm sorry. I can't English well.

I had a new computer simulation.

We set up each model from the birth of universe to the present, and calculated GPE using computer simulation in each level.

As a result, we could verify that “pair creation model of negative mass and positive mass” explains inflation of the early universe and decelerating expansion, and present accelerating expansion in time series.

This simulation is showing incredible results.
It not only explains the total energy of the universe, flatness, and the essence (Total zero energy, pair creation of negative energy and positive energy) of the process of birth of the universe, but it explains inflation, decelerating expansion in the early stage, accelerating expansion in the late stage, and dark matter through the only term, negative energy. Moreover, this negative energy is one that is essentially required by the law of energy conservation.

1. Dark energy - Accelerating expansion of distant galaxy due to negative mass

2. Inflation, decelerating expansion and accelerating expansion with pair creation of negative mass and positive mass

3. Paper: The change of Gravitational Potential Energy and Dark Energy in the Zero Energy Universe.
http://vixra.org/abs/1110.0019

A. Birth of the universe from zero energy state
1) computer simulation

Fig14. m+=+1 (1,000ea), -m-=-1 (1,000ea),
U++ = -5190.4707907,
U-- = -5308.0373689,
U-+= 10499.2712222,
U_tot = 0.7630625

Total rest mass energy is zero. Total gravitational potential energy () is +0.763.

, so is almost zero.

We could not make GPE 0 for there were too many particles. Therefore, we simulated dividing the value of (total GPE) into two parts which are when it is little bit bigger than 0 (+0.76306) and when smaller than 0 (-0.53277), and we could gain almost similar results. (Attached 1, 2)

2) Accelerating expansion of the universe (inflation)

It can be confirmed that even though the total energy starts with 0, the universe expands and positive masses combine one another due to attractive interaction among themselves, while negative masses can not form massive mass structure because of repulsive interaction.

The pair creation model of negative mass and positive mass explains “energy conservation” in times of the birth of the universe and “expansion after the birth” naturally, and it does not need institution of new mechanism or field like inflaton or inflation itself, and it explains this effect with only gravity.

3) Change of GPE

Figure15-a.The ratio of negative GPE to positive GPE of the early universe. We can confirm that as the universe expands, (+GPE/-GPE) ratio decreases, and gets to be negative value. Figure15-b. Total GPE of the early universe. Figure15-c. of the early universe and GPE related with positive mass. It looks almost like a straight line for the size of is relatively small.

The graph above is that the change of GPE related with positive mass and drawn through graph.

As we have observed activities of only positive masses, “GPE related with positive mass ()” has a significant meaning.

a) Nevertheless the value of changes from 0 to negative value, the universe expands for GPE related with positive mass has + value.

b) Note that nevertheless the total energy is 0, GPE related with positive mass has very big positive value, and this value approaches to 0 very rapidly. This explains the dramatic expansion like the early universe inflation and the finish of this inflation mechanism.

c) The thing we can notice by this and the next simulation is that if time goes bit more, and GPE related with positive mass both have negative values, and the universe is converted to the decelerating expansion stage.

d) In order to explain the flatness of the universe, typical researchers assume the inflation mechanism and explain it using this. But Zero Energy Universe does not need institution of new field for it guarantees flatness itself, and additionally, the simulation above means that the accelerating expansion of the early universe can be explained with gravity without instituting new field.

4) Change of GPE related with positive mass and in three initial value

Fig16-a. Total rest mass energy=0, (initial value)= +51.79 / +0.76 / -0.53. Time scale=0.5, Step scale(+51.79,-0.53)=200, Step scale(+0.76)=250,
Fig16-b. Change of GPE related with positive mass in three cases

GPE related with positive mass has very big positive value, and this value approaches to 0 very rapidly.

B. GPE among distant galaxies and accelerating expansion
1) When positive mass is spread through relatively large area

Fig17.Distant galaxy – The structure that negative mass surrounds galaxy composed of positive mass.
= (1 X 500) + (1 X 500) = + 1000, center1(-1000,0,0), center2(+1000,0,0), R=150,
= (-1 X 500) +(-1 X 500) = - 1000, negative mass distribution :
. We simulated having it has unit mass of positive mass and negative mass.

After the birth of the universe, positive masses bind together by attractive interaction. Meanwhile, negative masses are being almost uniformly distributed because of repulsive interaction. Negative masses are gravitational bounded to massive positive masses (Galaxy or Galaxy cluster) for massive positive mass has attractive effect on negative mass.

Figure18-a.The ratio of +GPE to –GPE of distant galaxy. Figure18-b. and GPE related with positive mass on distant galaxy. Note that GPE value related with positive mass changes from positive value to negative value, and to positive value again. This represents acceleration expansion deceleration expansion acceleration expansion of the universe.

a) The ratio of +GPE to –GPE of distant galaxy
i) Early status is that positive GPE is smaller than negative GPE, and the has negative value. This negative GPE status results from gravitational binding of positive masses.

ii) As time goes by, binding of positive mass increases due to attractive interaction, and the absolute value of negative gravity potential reaches maximum.

iii) The absolute value of negative GPE decreases due to positive mass has a gravitational binding and negative mass does gravitational contraction and is converted to positive value as a result. Center of gravitational contraction of negative masses is galaxy or galaxy cluster.

iv) and GPE related with positive mass both are converted to positive value. Therefore, the universe gets to an era of accelerating expansion again.

v) On the simulation above, we can confirm that +GPE increases 200% the value of –GPE, and for we deduce the universal components through GPE, we will guess that repulsive dark energy increases 200% the value of attractive mass energy (matter + dark matter, as a general deduction).

b) and GPE related with positive mass on distant galaxy
i) In the early universe, GPE related with positive mass had very big + value, but this value gets smaller as positive masses binds together and comprise of galaxy structure. On the simulation above, it still has positive value, and so it is in the status of accelerating expansion.

ii) We can notice that and GPE related with positive mass both are converted to negative value by gravitational binding of positive masses. Therefore, the universe gets to an era of decelerating expansion.

iii) GPE related with positive mass is converted to positive value due to negative mass does gravitational contraction around massive positive mass(Galaxy or Galaxy Cluster). Therefore, the universe gets to an era of accelerating expansion again.

iv) The decelerating expansion and accelerating expansion is naturally explained through “pair creation model of negative mass and positive mass”, and the conversion from accelerating expansion to decelerating expansion and from decelerating expansion to accelerating expansion is explained in sequence.

v) The conversion from negative value to positive value shall be done more smoothly than the graph above for there exist thousands of billions of galaxies in our universe.

Figure19-a.The change of distance and relative speed among distant galaxies. Figure19-b. GPE related with positive mass and negative mass.

c) The change of distance and relative speed among distant galaxies
Massive positive mass is given a birth from the 8th stage due to gravitational contraction. We calculated distance between the two massive positive masses (corresponding to the galaxy or galaxy cluster) and relative speeds of the two from then.

We can notice that there exits positive acceleration, and it corresponds to accelerating expansion.

d) GPE related with positive mass and negative mass
Positive mass and negative mass have different GPE value each other, therefore their movements are different each other.
Last edited by pzkpfw; 2012-Feb-13 at 08:07 PM. Reason: Unembed video

2. C. Change of GPE among close galaxies

refer to paper.

D. Gravitational contraction due to positive mass and negative mass
1) When positive mass does gravitational contraction
The structure that negative mass surrounds galaxy composed of positive mass.

fig24. = (-1 X500)+(-1 X500)= -1000,
negative mass distribution: center1(-1000,0,0), center2(+1000,0,0), within R=220~250.
= (+1X500) + (+1X500)= +1000,
positive mass distribution : center1(-1000,0,0), center2(+1000,0,0), within
a)R0-R200, b)R0-R150, c)R0-R100, d)R0-R50

It is shown that as positive mass does gravitational contraction, and GPE value related with positive mass both gradually smaller (negative value).

This means that our universe is converted from accelerating expansion (inflation) in the early universe to decelerating expansion.

2) When negative mass does gravitational contraction

fig25. = (500 X1) + (500 X1)= 1000,
positive mass distribution: center1(-1000,0,0), center2(+1000,0,0).
= (-1X500) + (-1X500)= -1000,
negative mass distribution : center1(-1000,0,0), center2(+1000,0,0), within
a)R50-R250, b)R50-R200, c)R50-R150, d)R50-R100

It is shown that as negative mass does gravitational contraction around massive positive mass, and GPE value related with positive mass both are bigger.

This means that our universe is converted from decelerating expansion to accelerating expansion (Dark energy effect).

E. Distant six galaxies

fig26. Distant six galaxies. = +100 X 6 = +600.
Each +100 at (±1000,0,0),(0,±1000,0),(0,0,±1000).
= (-0.4 X 250) X 6 = - 600
center(±1000,0,0), center(0,±1000,0), center(0,0,±1000) negative mass is spread within

fig.27

1) The ratio of +GPE to –GPE and GPE related with positive mass on six galaxies

and GPE related with positive mass both have a positive value. Therefore, expansion of universe is accelerating.

fig.28

2) The change of distance and relative speed among six galaxies
We can notice that there exits positive acceleration, and it corresponds to accelerating expansion.

F. The change of GPE in the whole time of the universe

fig29. The change of of universe according to time. Refer to Figure15-b, 16-a, 18-b, 21-b, 21-b, 23-c, 27-b.

2) The change of of universe according to time.
a) GPE approaches to 0 at last as universe gets larger for it is in proportion to 1/r.

b) can have diverse values in the early universe. But it is assumed that it would have similar graph as time goes.

c) It seems that more likely has 0 or positive value. The homogeneous distribution of negative energy and positive energy makes have positive value (red line).

Although the total GPE starts with 0 or positive value in the early stage, it change to negative value as time goes by, and positive masses forms galaxies binding themselves, and as negative mass does gravitational contraction, it is converted to positive value.

This provides natural explanation about accelerating expansion of the early universe, decelerating expansion in the first half, and accelerating expansion in the second half.

fig30.The change of and GPE value related with positive mass according to time.
The reason of dark energy seems to be constant, is that our universe pass this section (slope) lately 5~7Gyr. Refer to Figure15-b,c,16-a,b,18-b,21-b,23-c,27-b.

3) The change of and GPE value related with positive mass according to time.

In early universe, Even if the total GPE is 0, the universe can expand in acceleration.
The typical matter we observe in the universe is positive mass, and this is because there are two GPE categories related with positive masses.

Although and GPE value related with positive mass can have values that have large difference in the early universe, as time goes by, and GPE value related with positive mass have values and shapes similar to each other.

The change of Gravitational Potential Energy and Dark Energy in the Zero Energy Universe.
http://vixra.org/abs/1110.0019

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In my paper on the Refractive Field Theory I discuss the possibility that an original distribution with a small variance about 0 everywhere would lead to the positive mass-energy regions shrinking while the negative mass-energy regions expand. The negative mass-energy is exactly the gravitational field of the positive mass-energy regions.

Do you have a published paper on this I can cite in this section when I respond to the reviewers inevitable comments on my paper?

I have also seen that you have posted on this topic before. If this thread is closed, I will welcome your thoughts along these lines as they apply to the theory I am currently presenting.

4. Originally Posted by utesfan100
In my paper on the Refractive Field Theory I discuss the possibility that an original distribution with a small variance about 0 everywhere would lead to the positive mass-energy regions shrinking while the negative mass-energy regions expand. The negative mass-energy is exactly the gravitational field of the positive mass-energy regions.

Do you have a published paper on this I can cite in this section when I respond to the reviewers inevitable comments on my paper?

I have also seen that you have posted on this topic before. If this thread is closed, I will welcome your thoughts along these lines as they apply to the theory I am currently presenting.
utesfan100,

ATM is not a collaborative effort. It is for one person to present their idea, and others to ask questions about it. You can not use someone else's thread to solicit information for your idea or to present your idea. If you want to chat with icarus2, do it by PM.

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I am fascinated by this research showing that assuming a negative energy density equal and opposite to the known positive energy density can account for a qualitative explanation of the expansion profiles of our current cosmological models. It would appear that your work is a very good first step, but I think the issue of temperature needs to be addressed.

The existing cosmological models are driven largely by the needs to produce the distribution of atomic nuclei we observe.

Is there a quantitative difference between positive and negative energy separating, and positive and negative energy being generated in equal and opposite quantities? It would appear to me that this is not the case, regardless of the nature of the negative energy. I would suggest further that nullification of positive and negative mass would decrease the entropy of a system, so the reverse process would be tightly constrained.

This then suggests that the temperature relations of this model would be significantly lower than the standard cosmologies at the earlier time frames. Can this be shown to not be the case, or what mechanism alters the nucleon synthesis relative to the standard cosmology to produce the ratios we see today?

6. Positive and negative mass being attracted to positive mass while negative mass repels negative mass is asymmetrical. How would that work in a presumed symmetrical universe where positive mass equals negative mass and so forth? If the total mass of the universe is zero, then does positive and negative mass cancel when they come in contact like anti-matter? Let's say that an equal amount of positive and negative mass is close to each other at some point in space, +m1 and -m1, while positive mass +m2 is nearby. If close enough, the fields of +m1 and -m1 should largely counteract each other, like a point in empty space with overall zero mass/energy, shouldn't they? If so, then positive mass +m2 would not be attracted or repelled by the positive and negative masses +m1 and -m1 at that point, they would be neutral to +m2, while we know that positive mass is attracted to positive mass, so +m1 and +m2 attract each other, therefore the positive and negative masses +m2 and -m1 must repel in order for positive mass +m2 to be neutral to the point where both positive and negative masses +m1 and -m1 are. Hopefully you followed that. The same thing with the negative mass, being neutral to the point in space where the equal amount of positive masses +m1 and -m1 are when they are close together, while we just found that positive and negative mass repel, so negative masses would attract negative masses in that case. Have you tried running simulations where positive masses attract positive masses and negative masses attract negative masses while positive and negative masses repel?

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Originally Posted by grav
Positive and negative mass being attracted to positive mass while negative mass repels negative mass is asymmetrical. How would that work in a presumed symmetrical universe where positive mass equals negative mass and so forth? If the total mass of the universe is zero, then does positive and negative mass cancel when they come in contact like anti-matter? Let's say that an equal amount of positive and negative mass is close to each other at some point in space, +m1 and -m1, while positive mass +m2 is nearby. If close enough, the fields of +m1 and -m1 should largely counteract each other, like a point in empty space with overall zero mass/energy, shouldn't they? If so, then positive mass +m2 would not be attracted or repelled by the positive and negative masses +m1 and -m1 at that point, they would be neutral to +m2, while we know that positive mass is attracted to positive mass, so +m1 and +m2 attract each other, therefore the positive and negative masses +m2 and -m1 must repel in order for positive mass +m2 to be neutral to the point where both positive and negative masses +m1 and -m1 are. Hopefully you followed that. The same thing with the negative mass, being neutral to the point in space where the equal amount of positive masses +m1 and -m1 are when they are close together, while we just found that positive and negative mass repel, so negative masses would attract negative masses in that case. Have you tried running simulations where positive masses attract positive masses and negative masses attract negative masses while positive and negative masses repel?
I see nothing in the OP that did not follow the mainstream treatment of negative mass, as shown to be consistent in the context of Newtonian and relativistic equations by Forward and Bondi. This REQUIRES the equivalence principle of sign for inertial mass and both passive and active gravitational mass.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative_mass

This complicates things because force and momentum are opposed to acceleration and velocity for negative mass, complicating the meaning of attracts and repels, and making your question highly ambiguous. Try wording your question using push and pull for force/momentum and attract/repel for acceleration/velocity. This will be particularly helpful for the English as a second language author.

If the masses are the same we have a pull. If they are different we have a push. Positive mass attracts both types of mass. Negative mass repulses both.

An equal magnitude positive and negative mass next to each other accelerate to infinity in the direction of the positive mass, but their net zero mass make the total momentum and energy 0 no matter how fast the system goes.

If a model has anything else, it can not rely on the work of Forward and Bondi for consistency. If I missed something, wording your question as indicated above will make it more clear to the author and myself what you are questioning about the model presented here.

8. Originally Posted by grav
~ where positive masses attract positive masses and negative masses attract negative masses while positive and negative masses repel?
I’m sorry. I can’t English well. My native language is not English.
So my expression is very limited.
In the negative mass, we must attention that direction of force can be different direction of motion.

1) Positive mass & positive mass
----------

+m1 ------ +m2
Fig01. Positive mass +m1 and positive mass +m2 (initial velocity =0, m1 >0, m2 >0)

Positive mass and positive mass : The force worked between positive mass is attraction, and two objects move toward the center of mass. The force is attraction, thus their potential energy has negative value. The direction of acceleration is in the direction of - r, so the distance between two objects are reduced gradually.

Force is attraction, and Motion is attractive.

2) Negative mass & negative mass
-----------

- m1 ------ - m2
fig02. Ngative mass - m1 and negative mass - m2 (initial velocity =0, m1>0, m2> 0)

Negative mass and negative mass: Both two objects are accelerated in the direction of + r which extends distance r, so as time passes, the distance between them is greater than initially given condition, and the force between them is attraction, but the effect is repulsive.

If negative mass and positive mass were born together at the beginning of universe, positive mass has attractive effect each other, so it forms star and galaxy structure now, but negative mass has repulsive effect each other, so they cannot make massive mass structure like star or galaxy.

Force is attraction, but Motion is repulsive.

3) Positive mass & negative mass
----------

-m1 ------- +m2
fig03. Negative mass - m1 and positive mass +m2 (initial velocity =0, m1 >0, m_2 >0)

Negative mass and positive mass : Negative mass is accelerated in the direction of positive mass, and positive mass is accelerated in the direction to be far away from negative mass.

The direction of acceleration a1 worked on negative mass – m1 is - r, so - m1 moves in the direction of reducing distance r, and the direction of acceleration a2 worked on positive mass +m2 is +r, so positive mass +m2 is accelerated in the direction that distance r increases, namely the direction of being far away from negative mass.

If the absolute value of positive mass is bigger than that of negative mass, they will meet within finite time(attractive effect) , and if the absolute value of positive mass is smaller than that of negative mass, the distance between them will be bigger, and they cannot meet(repulsive effect) . The type of force is repulsion, so the potential energy has positive value.

==> Uniformly distributed negative mass receives attractive effect from massive positive mass(Galaxy and Galaxy cluster), so dark matter which has negative mass is clustered around galaxy because of attraction of galaxy.

In my(Bondi, Forward and me) negative mass model
Inertial mass < 0
(Active and Passive) Gravitational mass < 0
At this model, the principle of equivalence is valid.

[positive masses attract positive masses and negative masses attract negative masses while positive and negative masses repel ]

This guess is same to below model.
Inertial mass > 0
(Active and Passive) Gravitational mass < 0
At this model, the principle of equivalence is not valid. In pair creation of positive mass and negative mass, energy conservation is not valid

For the motion of negative mass, please refer to below simulation video.
--- Icarus2
Last edited by pzkpfw; 2012-Feb-13 at 08:09 PM. Reason: Unembed video

9. Thanks, icarus2 and utesfan100. Okay, so the force between two like masses is pull and between two unlike masses is push, but when the mass is divided out to find the acceleration involved, we get negative mass repelling both negative and positive, and positive mass attracting both negative and positive. Interesting. This actually keeps the symmetry because negative mass and positive mass don't really attract in that case, which was the original impression I got from the OP, rather the negative mass is attracted to the positive mass and the positive mass is repelled by the negative mass. The Wiki link says that this also keeps the equivalence principle of GR intact. Looking at it that way, positive mass has a positive curvature, the geometry is curved inward, attracting all negative and positive mass equally, while negative mass has a negative curvature, the geometry is curved outward, repelling all negative and positive mass. So an equal amount of negative mass and positive mass that are close together at some point in space will curve the geometry inward and outward equally, behaving the same as flat empty space to all other mass. Cool.

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Originally Posted by icarus2
I’m sorry. I can’t English well. My native language is not English.
So my expression is very limited.
I want to help you express your ideas better in English. The biggest issue is that you use attraction and repulsion for both force and acceleration. These words suggest motion to a native English speaker, but for positive mass this makes no difference for a force. We thus use these interchangeably with pull and push that suggest force to an native English speaker.

If negative mass is allowed, this equivalence of direction is broken. We should then use different words to express whether we are talking about force or acceleration.

Attraction and repulsion should be used only to refer to acceleration or velocity.

Pull and push should be used only to refer to a force or momentum.

I think taking care to use this notation in the future will significantly clarify the English presentation of your ideas when negative mass is considered.

11. Thanks utesfan100.

Originally Posted by utesfan100
Is there a quantitative difference between positive and negative energy separating, and positive and negative energy being generated in equal and opposite quantities?

==> |total positive energy| = |total negative energy|
But,

==> or Because of gravitational potential energy.

Originally Posted by utesfan100
I would suggest further that nullification of positive and negative mass would decrease the entropy of a system, so the reverse process would be tightly constrained.
In my opinion,
Nullification(annihilation) of positive and negative mass would be tightly constrained (energy conservation, momentum conservation, etc...). And nullification(annihilation) of positive and negative mass would decrease the entropy of a system. But law of entropy is not constraint condition in my think.

If the energy vanishes, the entropy also vanishes.

Originally Posted by utesfan100
This then suggests that the temperature relations of this model would be significantly lower than the standard cosmologies at the earlier time frames. Can this be shown to not be the case, or what mechanism alters the nucleon synthesis relative to the standard cosmology to produce the ratios we see today?
(Temperature or heat) and (kinetic energy and potential energy) are related.

Kinetic energy of all particles can be non-zero value in initial state.
Even if kinetic energy of all particles is zero in initial state, very big GPE is exist in the early universe.

Density of GPE = GPE/ V
Now Universe’s radius ~ 10^26m ~10^27m
In the early universe, GPE density can be (10^240) X (now GPE density)
Maybe, temperature will suffice.

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You have an interesting idea. But, as you say, you do not English well. Could you please find someone who is a native speaker of English and is fluent in your language to restate your ATM idea, and present it here, without the links to other sites?

Good luck, John M.
Last edited by John Mendenhall; 2012-Feb-14 at 04:55 PM. Reason: typo

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I do not speak ICARUS2's native language, but I have read through his xiVra paper and have considered theories along these lines to understand what is being communicated. I also have a vested interest in seeing this cosmology vetted, as it relates strongly to my own ideas.

This does present a slight conflict of interest that should warrant requesting the author to respond to the accuracy of this post prior to it being taken as a accurate representation of this theory.
Originally Posted by John Mendenhall
You have an interesting idea. But, as you say, you do not English well. Could you please find someone who is a native speaker of English and is fluent in your language to restate your ATM idea, and present it here, without the links to other sites?
Inflation, decelerating expansion and accelerating expansion due to negative mass

I apologize for my poor English.

I have new computer results to provide significant advances to the theory I presented at http://www.bautforum.com/showthread.php/105870 to warrant the reconsideration of these ideas.

These models track the gravitational potential energy (GPE) over the life of the universe. In particular, these computer models shown that this model predicts an expansion profile of the universe similar to what is required from modern cosmologies.

The negative energy, required by the conservation of energy, is shown to account for the flatness of the universe[isotropy?], an early expansion, a deceleration phase and the current acceleration, which also accounts for dark matter.

[Video links, and a link to a fuller description provided in OP]

1) Computer simulation of 1000 positive and 1000 neagtive unit masses [Potential values omitted]
U++: The potential considering only positive masses
U--: The potential considering only negative masses
U+-: The potential considering only mixed masses
U_tot: U++ + U-- + U+-
[For simplicity the translator will also use (as clarified by post #14):
GPE=Utot
+GPE=U+-, the positive energy density component of the GPE.
-GPE=U++ + U--, for negative enerergy density component of the GPE.
+U=U++ + U+-, the GPE experienced by a positive mass.
-U=U-- + U+-, the GPE experienced by a negative mass.]

The total mass is 0. The total GPE=+0.763.

, so the total GPE is seen to be negligible relative to its components.

With this many particles it is difficult to make the total potential 0. Thus we partitioned the original set into two parts, the one shown with a potential of +0.763 and another with a potential of -0.533. Both yield similar results.

2) Accelerating Universe
This model shows that, starting from a total energy of 0, a concentrated distribution of positive and negative energy will expand, with the positive mass concentrating due to its attractive gravity and negative energy expanding uniformly from its repulsive gravity.

Thus cosmic inflation, and the separation of masses into gravitationally interacting units, are predicted using only gravity and the conservation of energy from a 0 energy initial condition.

3) Change of GPE
[Graphs omitted showing +GPE/-GPE decreases with time, Utot approaches 0 from below and that +GPE vanishes with time.]

Since our observations have been limited to positive masses, only U++ and U+- have an observable significance.

a) Utot is negative, so the universe should expand, even though +U has a large positive value.
b) Utot remains small as +U vanishes, ending the initial period of rapid expansion.
c) Running this further shows that +U actually becomes negative, initiating a deceleration phase of the universe.
d) This eliminates the need for an additional rapid expansion mechanism, explaining the flatness of the early universe, using only gravity.

4) [Graphs provided showing that three different +U initial conditions yield the same asymptotic behavior]

B) GPE on distant galaxies [gravitationally interacting units?] and accelerating expansion
[Link provided to video of simulation]
Initially, positive mass will collect due to their mutual gravitational attraction, while negative mass will disperse due to their mutual gravitational repulsion. Negative mass will still be attracted to positive mass and could form a region of negative mass around large objects, similar in magnitude to the object itself.
[Figures showing potential profile for model, noting the same early expansion->deceleration->expansion profile]
a) Ratio of +GPE to -GPE
i)+GPE starts smaller than -GPE, and Utot is negative. -GPE is negative due to the gravitational binding of the masses.
ii) As time goes by this gravitational binding stabilizes, and -GPE reaches a minimum.
iii) The magnitude of -GPE decreases, as the negative mass is also bound tighter to the central positive mass. This results in Utot eventually becoming positive.
iv) Eventually Utot and +U becomes positive and accelerating expansion begins again.
v) +GPE appears to converge to 200% of -GPE, allowing us to calculate -GPE and Utot from the known observations of U++ and U+-. This +GPE is observed as the repulsive dark energy effecting positive matter.

b) Utot and +U on distant masses.
i) The universe started with a very large +U, but this value is reduced as the positive masses become gravitationally bound. The simulation above started in this early phase of the universe.
ii) We note that both values become negative, leading to a deceleration phase of expansion.
iii) Negative mass then concentrates around the centers of positive mass, increasing +U and leading to another period of expansion.
iv) Again we see the initial acceleration, followed by deceleration, leading to acceleration history of the universe that our standard cosmologies require.
v) The graphs presented here should be smoothed out due to the large numbers of large masses in our universe, compared to the limited numbers used in the model.

c) Change in velocity and distance of galaxies with time
[included pictures of distance, velocity and also +U and -U vs. time]
We begin the distance and velocity profiles at the 8th time step, to allow the initial gravitational contraction to complete.

We note that there is a positive acceleration, corresponding to an accelerating expansion.

d) Comparison of the +U and -U
+U and -U are different, so their motions are also different.

D. Gravitational contraction due to positive and negative masses.
1) When positive masses contract, negative mass will form a structure around the center.
[image of GPE components with time, showing decrease, except near constant U+- and U--]
Utot is shown to become increasing negative, along with U++ and +U.

This transitions the universe from expansion to contraction in the early universe.

2) When negative mass contracts around positive centers of mass.
[Graph showing divergence of all GPE components]
This shows that Utot and +U increase as negative mass concentrates around positive mass, increasing the total effect on positive mass.

This transitions our universe from deceleration back to acceleration.

E) 6 distant galaxies[gravitationally interacting units?]
[video embedded, along with graphs GPE components with time]
1) The ratio of +GPE, -GPE and +U for six positive mass galaxies.

Utot and +U are positive, so the expansion of the universe is accelerating.
[Image of distance and velocity with time]
This is visible from the plot of distance and velocity with time.

F. The change of GPE over the lifetime of the universe.
[graph given, for three conditions outlined above.]
2) Utot of universe
a) GPE approaches 0 as 1/r at the final phase of the universe.
b) The shape of Utot is not expected to depend on its initial value.
c) It is most likely that Utot is non-negative. An initially homogenous solution would have a positive value, and is shown in red.

Although Utot starts non-negative, the gravitational binding of positive masses drives this value negative. The concentration of negative mass around the positive mass centers then drives this value positive again.

This provides a natural explanation of the early rapid expansion of the early universe, decelerating expansion in the first half, and accelerating expansion in the second half.
[graph showing life of universe, including period where dark energy would appear constant]
Dark energy appears constant because we are currently in this region of the graph.

3) The change of Utot and +U according to time.

In the early universe, even if Utot is 0, the universe can have an accelerating early expansion. The typical matter we observe is positive mass, [unclear] and the observed acceleration is from the two GPE components that impact positive masses.[??]

Although Utot and +U cans have large differences in the early universe, as time goes by they converge.
[Link to a more detailed, but still broken English, xiVra article provided]
Last edited by utesfan100; 2012-Feb-15 at 05:15 PM. Reason: To fix an error in translation of +GPE and -GPE (introducing +U and -U for clarity), as explained in post #14

14. ## I really appreciate utesfan100

I really appreciate utesfan100. And I apologize for my poor English.

If negative mass and positive mass coexist, gravitational potential energy consists of the below three items.

GPE between positive masses are negative value.

GPE between negative masses are negative value.

GPE between positive mass and negative mass are positive value.

GPE= Gravitational Potential Energy.

---
utesfan100's explanation
---
==> my explanation

================================================== =========================

---
+GPE=U++ + U+-, for GPE on the positive masses
-GPE=U-- + U+-, for GPE on the negative masses]
---
==>
+GPE = positive gravitational potential energy = U-+
-GPE = negative gravitational potential energy = U++ + U--
Utot = Total gravitational potential energy = (+GPE)+(-GPE)=(U-+) + (U++) + (U--)

New concept is introduced.
"GPE related with positive mass" = U++ + U-+

As we have observed activities of only positive masses, “GPE related with positive mass ( )” has a significant meaning.

Two terms(U++ and U-+) have a m+.
U++ has an only negative value(-Gmm/r). But universe’s expansion is accelerating.
Therefore, new concept (GPE related with positive mass ) is need.

---
Since our observations have been limited to positive masses, only +GPE has an observable significance.
---

==>
Since our observations have been limited to positive masses, only "GPE related with positive mass" has an observable significance.

---
a) Utot is negative, so the universe should expand, even though +GPE has a large positive value.
---
==>
a) Nevertheless the value of Utot changes from 0 to negative value, the universe expands for "GPE related with positive mass" has + value.

---
b) Utot remains small as +GPE vanishes, ending the initial period of rapid expansion.
---
==>
b) Note that nevertheless the total energy is 0, "GPE related with positive mass" has very big positive value, and this value(GPE related with positive mass) approaches to 0 very rapidly. This explains the dramatic expansion like the early universe inflation and the finish of this inflation mechanism.

---
c) Running this further shows that +GPE actually becomes negative, initiating a deceleration phase of the universe.
---
==>
Running this further shows that "GPE related with positive mass(U++ + U-+)" actually becomes negative, initiating a deceleration phase of the universe.

---
flatness[isotropy?]
---
==>
flatness :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatness_(cosmology)

---
[Figures showing potential profile for model, noting the same early expansion->deceleration->expansion profile]
---
==>
Figures showing potential profile for model, noting the same early accelerating expansion-> decelerating expansion-> accelerating expansion profile

---
i)+GPE starts smaller than -GPE, and Utot is negative. -GPE is negative due to the gravitational binding of the masses.
---
==>
i)+GPE(U-+) starts smaller than -GPE(U++ + U--), and Utot is negative. "Utot is negative" due to the gravitational binding of the masses.

---
ii) As time goes by this gravitational binding stabilizes, and -GPE reaches a minimum.
---
==>
ii) As time goes by this gravitational binding stabilizes, and Utot reaches a minimum.

---
iii) The magnitude of -GPE decreases, as the negative mass is also bound tighter to the central positive mass. This results in Utot eventually becoming positive.
---
==>
iii) The magnitude of Utot decreases, as the negative mass is also bound tighter to the central positive mass. This results in Utot eventually becoming positive.

---
iv)Eventually +GPE becomes positive and accelerating expansion begins again.
---
==>
iv)Eventually both (Utot and "GPE related with positive mass") becomes positive and accelerating expansion begins again.

"GPE related with positive mass" = U++ + U-+

---
v) +GPE appears to converge to 200% of -GPE, allowing us to calculate -GPE and Utot from the known observations of U++ and U+-.
---
==>
v) +GPE(U-+) appears to converge to 200% of -GPE(U++ + U--).

---
i) The universe started with a very large +GPE, but this value is reduced as the positive masses become gravitationally bound.
---
==>
i) The universe started with a very large positive "GPE related with positive mass", but this value is reduced as the positive masses become gravitationally bound.

---
ii) We note that both values become negative, leading to a deceleration phase of expansion.
---
==>
ii) We note that both("Utot" and "GPE related with positive mass") values become negative, leading to a deceleration phase of expansion.

---
iii) Negative mass then concentrates around the centers of positive mass, increasing +GPE and leading to another period of expansion.
---
==>
iii) Negative mass then concentrates around the centers of positive mass, increasing "GPE related with positive mass(U++ +U-+)" and leading to another period of accelerating expansion.

---
+GPE and -GPE are different, so their motions are also different.
---
==>
"GPE related with positive mass" and "GPE related with negative mass" are different, so their(positive mass and negative mass) motions are also different.

or

(U++ +U-+) and (U-- + U-+) are different, so their(positive mass and negative mass) motions are also different.

---
Utot is shown to become increasing negative with U++ and +GPE, while U+- remains constant.
---
==>
"Utot" and "GPE related with positive mass" are shown to become increasing negative, while U+- remains constant.

---
This transitions the universe from expansion to contraction in the early universe.
---
==>
This transitions the universe from accelerating expansion to decelerating expansion in the early universe.

---
This shows that Utot and +GPE increase as negative mass concentrates around positive mass, increasing the total effect on positive mass.
---
==>
This shows that "Utot" and "GPE related with positive mass" increase as negative mass concentrates around positive mass, increasing the total effect on positive mass.

"Utot" and "GPE related with positive mass" are positive, so the expansion of the universe is accelerating.

---
In the early universe, even if Utot is 0, the universe can have an accelerating early expansion. The typical matter we observe is positive mass, [unclear] and the observed acceleration is from the two GPE components that impact positive masses.[??]
---
==>
In the early universe, even if Utot is 0, the universe can have an accelerating early expansion. Because of U-+ exist.

or
In the early universe, even if Utot is 0, the universe can have an accelerating early expansion. Because of that "GPE related with positive mass" has a positive value.

---
Although Utot and GPE+ cans have large differences in the early universe, as time goes by they converge.
---
==>
Although "Utot" and "GPE related with positive mass" cans have large differences in the early universe, as time goes by they converge.

Again,
I apologize for my poor English. And, I really appreciate utesfan100.

--- Icarus2

15. Inflation, decelerating expansion and accelerating expansion due to negative mass

I apologize for my poor English.

I have new computer results to provide significant advances to the theory I presented at http://www.bautforum.com/showthread.php/105870 to warrant the reconsideration of these ideas.

These models track the gravitational potential energy (GPE) over the life of the universe. In particular, these computer models shown that this model predicts an expansion profile of the universe similar to what is required from modern cosmologies.

The negative energy, required by the conservation of energy, is shown to account for the flatness of the universe, an early expansion, a deceleration phase and the current acceleration, which also accounts for dark matter.

[Video links, and a link to a fuller description provided in OP]

1) Computer simulation of 1000 positive and 1000 negative unit masses [Potential values omitted]
U++: The potential considering only positive masses
U--: The potential considering only negative masses
U+-: The potential considering only mixed masses
U_tot: U++ + U-- + U+-

[For simplicity the translator will also use:

+GPE = positive gravitational potential energy = U-+
-GPE = negative gravitational potential energy = U++ + U--
Utot = Total gravitational potential energy = (+GPE)+(-GPE)=(U-+) + (U++) + (U--)

New concept is introduced.
"GPE related with positive mass" = U++ + U-+

As we have observed activities of only positive masses, “GPE related with positive mass ( )” has a significant meaning.

Two terms(U++ and U-+) have a m+.
U++ has an only negative value(-Gmm/r). But universe’s expansion is accelerating.
Therefore, new concept (GPE related with positive mass ) is need.

]

The total mass is 0. The total GPE=+0.763.
, so the total GPE is seen to be negligible relative to its components.

With this many particles it is difficult to make the total potential 0. Thus we partitioned the original set into two parts, the one shown with a potential of +0.763 and another with a potential of -0.533. Both yield similar results.

2) Accelerating Universe
This model shows that, starting from a total energy of 0, a concentrated distribution of positive and negative energy will expand, with the positive mass concentrating due to its attractive gravity and negative energy expanding uniformly from its repulsive gravity.

Thus cosmic inflation, and the separation of masses into gravitationally interacting units, are predicted using only gravity and the conservation of energy from a 0 energy initial condition.

3) Change of GPE
[Graphs omitted showing +GPE/-GPE decreases with time, Utot approaches 0 from below and that +GPE vanishes with time.]

Since our observations have been limited to positive masses, only "GPE related with positive mass" has an observable significance.

a) Nevertheless the value of Utot changes from 0 to negative value, the universe expands for "GPE related with positive mass" has + value.

b) Note that nevertheless the total energy is 0, "GPE related with positive mass" has very big positive value, and this value(GPE related with positive mass) approaches to 0 very rapidly. This explains the dramatic expansion like the early universe inflation and the finish of this inflation mechanism.

c) Running this further shows that "GPE related with positive mass(U++ + U-+)" actually becomes negative, initiating a deceleration phase of the universe.

d) This eliminates the need for an additional rapid expansion mechanism, explaining the flatness of the early universe, using only gravity.

flatness :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatness_(cosmology)

4) [Graphs provided showing that three different +GPE initial conditions yield the same asymptotic behavior]

B) GPE on distant galaxies [gravitationally interacting units?] and accelerating expansion
[Link provided to video of simulation]
Initially, positive mass will collect due to their mutual gravitational attraction, while negative mass will disperse due to their mutual gravitational repulsion. Negative mass will still be attracted to positive mass and could form a region of negative mass around large objects, similar in magnitude to the object itself.

Figures showing potential profile for model, noting the same early accelerating expansion-> decelerating expansion-> accelerating expansion profile

a) Ratio of +GPE to -GPE

i)+GPE(U-+) starts smaller than -GPE(U++ + U--), and Utot is negative. "Utot is negative" due to the gravitational binding of the masses.

ii) As time goes by this gravitational binding stabilizes, and Utot reaches a minimum.

iii) The magnitude of Utot decreases, as the negative mass is also bound tighter to the central positive mass. This results in Utot eventually becoming positive.

iv)Eventually both (Utot and "GPE related with positive mass") becomes positive and accelerating expansion begins again.

"GPE related with positive mass" = U++ + U-+

v) +GPE(U-+) appears to converge to 200% of -GPE(U++ + U--).

b) Utot and +GPE on distant masses.

i) The universe started with a very large positive "GPE related with positive mass", but this value is reduced as the positive masses become gravitationally bound.
The simulation above started in this early phase of the universe.

ii) We note that both("Utot" and "GPE related with positive mass") values become negative, leading to a deceleration phase of expansion.

iii) Negative mass then concentrates around the centers of positive mass, increasing "GPE related with positive mass(U++ +U-+)" and leading to another period of accelerating expansion.

iv) Again we see the initial acceleration, followed by deceleration, leading to acceleration history of the universe that our standard cosmologies require.
v) The graphs presented here should be smoothed out due to the large numbers of large masses in our universe, compared to the limited numbers used in the model.

c) Change in velocity and distance of galaxies with time
[included pictures of distance, velocity and also +GPE and -GPE vs. time]
We begin the distance and velocity profiles at the 8th time step, to allow the initial gravitational contraction to complete.

We note that there is a positive acceleration, corresponding to an accelerating expansion.

d) Comparison of the GPE of positive and negative masses

"GPE related with positive mass" and "GPE related with negative mass" are different, so their(positive mass and negative mass) motions are also different.

or

(U++ +U-+) and (U-- + U-+) are different, so their(positive mass and negative mass) motions are also different.

D. Gravitational contraction due to positive and negative masses.
1) When positive masses contract, negative mass will form a structure around the center.
[image of GPE components with time, showing decrease, except near constant U+- and U--]

"Utot" and "GPE related with positive mass" are shown to become increasing negative, while U+- remains constant.

This transitions the universe from accelerating expansion to decelerating expansion in the early universe.

2) When negative mass contracts around positive centers of mass.
[Graph showing divergence of all GPE components]

This shows that "Utot" and "GPE related with positive mass" increase as negative mass concentrates around positive mass, increasing the total effect on positive mass.

"Utot" and "GPE related with positive mass" are positive, so the expansion of the universe is accelerating.

This transitions our universe from deceleration back to acceleration.

E) 6 distant galaxies[gravitationally interacting units?]
[video embedded, along with graphs GPE components with time]
1) The ratio of +GPE, -GPE and Utot for six positive mass galaxies.

Utot and +GPE are positive, so the expansion of the universe is accelerating.
[Image of distance and velocity with time]
This is visible from the plot of distance and velocity with time.

F. The change of GPE over the lifetime of the universe.
[graph given, for three conditions outlined above.]
2) Utot of universe
a) GPE approaches 0 as 1/r at the final phase of the universe.
b) The shape of Utot is not expected to depend on its initial value.
c) It is most likely that Utot is non-negative. An initially homogenous solution would have a positive value, and is shown in red.

Although Utot starts non-negative, the gravitational binding of positive masses drives this value negative. The concentration of negative mass around the positive mass centers then drives this value positive again.

This provides a natural explanation of the early rapid expansion of the early universe, decelerating expansion in the first half, and accelerating expansion in the second half.

[graph showing life of universe, including period where dark energy would appear constant]
Dark energy appears constant because we are currently in this region of the graph.

3) The change of Utot and +GPE according to time.

In the early universe, even if Utot is 0, the universe can have an accelerating early expansion. Because of U-+ exist.

or
In the early universe, even if Utot is 0, the universe can have an accelerating early expansion. Because of that "GPE related with positive mass" has a positive value.

Although "Utot" and "GPE related with positive mass" cans have large differences in the early universe, as time goes by they converge.

Have a nice day!
--- Icarus2

16. Established Member
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540
Originally Posted by icarus2
---
+GPE=U++ + U+-, for GPE on the positive masses
-GPE=U-- + U+-, for GPE on the negative masses]
---
[COLOR="#A52A2A"]==>
+GPE = positive gravitational potential energy = U-+
-GPE = negative gravitational potential energy = U++ + U--
Utot = Total gravitational potential energy = (+GPE)+(-GPE)=(U-+) + (U++) + (U--)
Most of the rest of your differences rest on this misunderstanding of your notation. I believe I have corrected my previous post to accurately reflect your use of these values, and to introduce +U and -U for the potential observed be a positive and negative mass respectively.

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Question: You state that your model predicts flatness, but the computer simulations do not appear to allow motion in higher dimensions. Thus the observed flatness appears to be an assumed initial condition, not a derived fact of your theory.

Why must the initial distribution be limited to three spatial dimensions?

What would prevent non trivial deformations in curvature from radiating to infinity, breaking flatness?

On a different line of thought,

Would it make sense to consider your model from an initial infinite cubic lattice of positive mass, with a negative mass at the body center of each cube?

Would this arrangement be attractive or repulsive?

18. Originally Posted by utesfan100
Question: You state that your model predicts flatness, but the computer simulations do not appear to allow motion in higher dimensions. Thus the observed flatness appears to be an assumed initial condition, not a derived fact of your theory.
My model starts with a single assumption that is “There was a pair creation of negative energy(mass) and positive energy(mass) in the early universe”, and in other word, “The law of energy conservation came into existence when the universe was birthed.”

This single assumption explains all of the total energy of the universe, flatness, inflation, decelerating expansion, dark energy, and dark mass.

Diverse momentary assumptions that the typical theories (the momentum of inflation, cosmological constant, vacuum energy, dark matter like WIMP) have are not needed, and negative energy is the essential energy to satisfy energy conservation at the time of birth of the universe.

Flatness and Isotropy originated from locally energy conservation. In other word, Flatness and Isotropy originated from the pair creation of negative energy and positive energy.

Locally energy conservation means
when one pair creation, energy is conserved.

Originally Posted by utesfan100
What would prevent non trivial deformations in curvature from radiating to infinity, breaking flatness?
Because of the pair creation of negative energy and positive energy
Expansion problem from the status of exceeding density of black hole doesn’t take place because of an offset of positive energy and negative energy.

Originally Posted by utesfan100
Would it make sense to consider your model from an initial infinite cubic lattice of positive mass, with a negative mass at the body center of each cube?

Would this arrangement be attractive or repulsive?
In my opinion,
Infinity is only mathematical concept. In the real world, infinity does not exist.

Anyway, if total m+ = |total m-|,
Maybe, it will be expanded.

---Icarus2

19. Established Member
Join Date
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Originally Posted by icarus2
My model starts with a single assumption that is “There was a pair creation of negative energy(mass) and positive energy(mass) in the early universe”, and in other word, “The law of energy conservation came into existence when the universe was birthed.”

This single assumption explains all of the total energy of the universe, flatness, inflation, decelerating expansion, dark energy, and dark mass.

I agree that your computer models show that dispersion of equal magnitudes of positive and negative mass from a concentrated point origin in a flat 3D space-time has very compelling descriptive power.

I am suggesting that a flat 3D space-time is an implicit assumption to your model, at least it is a constraint of your computer models, and should be viewed as a second principle.

This would simply reduce flatness to an assumption, one most would consider reasonable and well tested asymptotically. Otherwise, you need to explain why matter only went in three dimensions, not 4 or 5; or 103.

20. Originally Posted by utesfan100

I agree that your computer models show that dispersion of equal magnitudes of positive and negative mass from a concentrated point origin in a flat 3D space-time has very compelling descriptive power.

I am suggesting that a flat 3D space-time is an implicit assumption to your model, at least it is a constraint of your computer models, and should be viewed as a second principle.

This would simply reduce flatness to an assumption, one most would consider reasonable and well tested asymptotically. Otherwise, you need to explain why matter only went in three dimensions, not 4 or 5; or 103.
In my model, flatness does not assumption.

Flatness originated from offset of positive energy(positive curvature) and negative energy(negative curvature). Therefore, it is induced from the energy conservation or pair creation of positive energy and negative energy.

refer to wiki.
======
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-energy_Universe

A gravitational field has negative energy. Matter has positive energy. The two values cancel out provided the universe is completely flat.
======

21. Established Member
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatness_(cosmology)

Flatness means space-time is Euclidean. How does your model show that space-time must be Euclidean?

I will concede that an initially flat space-time will remain flat under your model. How does your model show that space was initially flat?

22. III-H. Observation value of WMAP
2)Some interpretation

According to the observance result of WMAP, it is predicted that current dark energy, dark matter, and matter is approximately 72.1%, 23.3%, and 4.6%, respectively.

Now, let's correspond to the GPE as follows.

Matter = = Negative GPE
Dark Matter = = Negative GPE
Dark Energy = = Positive GPE

( total rest mass energy = 0 )

fig13. m+ = +100 X 6 = + 600. (±1200,0,0), (0,±1200,0), (0,0,±1200), each 100.
= (-0.2 X 500) X 6 = - 600.
Negative mass distribution : center(±1200,0,0), center(0,±1200,0), center(0,0,±1200), negative mass is spread within R=3-120.

U++ : -83.2 (1)
U-- : -459.6 (5.523)
U-+ : +1286.9 (15.463)

The ratio above is valid between the 3 physical parameters. Case of this ratio being valid was found through simulation.

23. Established Member
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Originally Posted by icarus2
III-H. Observation value of WMAP
2)Some interpretation

According to the observance result of WMAP, it is predicted that current dark energy, dark matter, and matter is approximately 72.1%, 23.3%, and 4.6%, respectively.

Now, let's correspond to the GPE as follows.

Matter = = Negative GPE
Dark Matter = = Negative GPE
Dark Energy = = Positive GPE

( total rest mass energy = 0 )

fig13. m+ = +100 X 6 = + 600. (±1200,0,0), (0,±1200,0), (0,0,±1200), each 100.
= (-0.2 X 500) X 6 = - 600.
Negative mass distribution : center(±1200,0,0), center(0,±1200,0), center(0,0,±1200), negative mass is spread within R=3-120.

U++ : -83.2 (1)
U-- : -459.6 (5.523)
U-+ : +1286.9 (15.463)

The ratio above is valid between the 3 physical parameters. Case of this ratio being valid was found through simulation.
Very interesting.

What determined why some galaxies formed envelopes of negative mass, while others did not? How do you explain the large elliptic galaxies which do not have observed dark matter, as I gather you would project for them?

24. ## Have a good time!

In total zero rest mass energy

U++ = -83.2 (1)
U-- = -459.6 (5.523)
U-+ = 1286.9 (15.463)

When we judge the components of the universe, we judge the components by gravitational effect rather than mass energy.

Therefore, when gravitational potential energy U-+ exists larger than gravitational potential energy U which is generated by materials, we will be confused to think that some mass energy bigger than the mass energy of materials exists.

Originally Posted by utesfan100
Very interesting.

What determined why some galaxies formed envelopes of negative mass, while others did not? How do you explain the large elliptic galaxies which do not have observed dark matter, as I gather you would project for them?
Since repulsive effects occur between negative masses, negative masses will be distributed all over space because it cannot form large mass structures like stars. Negative mass within the galaxy is cancelled out by attraction from large positive mass during the galaxy formation process. Furthermore, the space, other that the galaxy, will maintain the distribution state of negative mass.

As the factor that breaks the uniform distribution of negative mass,

1. Negative mass receives the attractive effect from massive positive mass, thus for the distribution of negative mass near massive positive mass such as galaxy or galaxy cluster, the density of negative mass is higher as it is closer to galaxy or galaxy cluster, and is lower as it is farther.

2. If positive mass(like galaxy cluster) that has strong gravity or interstellar cloud that has positive mass pass through existing area that negative mass is distributed, negative mass can be disappeared when meeting positive mass or it can be drawn owing to attractive effect of massive positive mass at this moment, so there can be the area that negative mass, namely, dark matter
is not uniformly distributed

3. For complete spherical symmetry, gravitational effect by negative mass outside the galaxy is cancelled by each other, and there is possibility that there isn't any additional gravitational effect inside the galaxy.

4. When galaxy clusters of uneven shape exist, the negative mass surrounding this doesn't always evenly surround clusters

Have a good time!

--- Icarus2
===========
1. Dark energy - Accelerating expansion of the universe due to negative mass

2. Inflation, decelerating expansion and accelerating expansion with pair creation of negative mass and positive mass

3. Paper: The change of Gravitational Potential Energy and Dark Energy in the Zero Energy Universe.
http://vixra.org/abs/1110.0019