Where are you getting the higher Falcon 9 LEO figure? Wikipedia has it as having an LEO lift capability of 10,450 kg, versus Ares I's 25,400 kg.
Someone mentioned up-thread a point about NASA's budget not being any higher on average in the 1960s than it is today. That's a little misleading, since the budgets from 1960-1962 were so low. The budgets for 1963-1969 were all above $20 billion/year in 2007 dollars, and for 1964-66 they were above $30 billion/year.