Time Dilation and Quasars
In May of 2001 Hawkins published a paper called “Time Dilation and Quasar Variability”. Part of the Abstract reads as follows.
“We find that the timescale of quasar variation does not increase with redshift as required by time dilation. Possible explanations of this result all conflict with widely held consensus in the scientific community.” http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/astro-ph/0105073
The conflict arises since this indicates that space-time is not expanding. This is contrary to the evidence of type 1a super novas that confirms the time dilation effect due to the expansion of space.
Initially this topic was posted by Dunash on this BB on January 10, 2002, but there was no follow up discussion of his posting. http://www.badastronomy.com/phpBB/viewtopic.php? I am appreciative for dgruss23 bringing up the paper in the course of a poll discussion called “Is the expansion of space-time accelerating or decelerating?”. http://www.badastronomy.com/phpBB/vi...2&start=50 (Page 3) I believe reference to this paper may also have been found in a discussion about the Red Shift but I could not find it but I think I remember reading it there. Hopefully someone will provide additional links to preserve the reference value of this BB.
I thought that a more through discussion of this topic is in order on its own since it provides evidence that something is wrong with current cosmological models.
I will attempt a “layman’s” description of the report. Hopefully someone with more expertise will provide a more explicit description.
Time dilation generally refers to an increase in the observed time a physical process occurs. There are at least two possible physical interpretations or descriptions for time dilation. The most common is the application of special relativity. Time progresses comparatively slower for a moving object, so an object observed in the past with a high velocity (indicated by red shift) will have physical processes occur at a slower rate. The decay of a muon entering the earth’s atmosphere is a classic example of how a physical process is slowed when an object is moving at near light speed velocities. The time scale of rapidly moving objects can be described by how long a physical process takes to occur, as predicted by special relativity. Specifically the time scale, Ts, can be described by the red shift proportion z as follows. Ts =Tm/Tl =1+z. Tm = interval of time moving, Tl = time interval of time local or “at rest”, z = ratio of wavelength.
The other physical interpretation is that the expansion of space-time itself results in a time dilation. Lets say that we are at a bowling alley and we roll two balls down the ally separated by 1 second of time. The distance between the two balls remains essentially constant while traveling down the alley. (Ignoring friction effects). The two balls will arrive at the end of the ally one second apart. Now lets throw the two balls again with a 1 second separation, but this time the bowling ally is “stretched” while the balls roll down the alley. This will physically increase the distance between the two balls. For example, Instead of the balls being 2 meters apart, they can end up being 4 meters apart. When the balls reach the end of the alley, in this example, the separation in time for when they reach the end will now be 2 seconds. (Ignoring the effect of the expansion on the velocity and energy of the balls, at least for this posting since the possible variance in the speed of light and the loss of energy of a photon (instead of a bowling ball), with the expansion of space-time is a whole other issue). I prefer this explanation of the cosmological red shift since it keeps galaxies “at rest” locally, allowing them to be carried by the expansion of space-time.
Regardless of the model, the basic general effect of time dilation will be the same. The time dilation will be Td = 1+z. A process that took 1 second to occur in a “rest” frame, will take 2 seconds to occur as measured by an observer if the red shift of the observed object producing the effect has a cosmological red shift of 1.
I am sure some will provide a better explanation of time dilation, and different interpretations, but I hope it gives the reader a general idea.
(In the application of my uniform expansion hypothesis (www.uniformexpansion.com) both special relativity and expansion result in time dilation, but one of the effects is unobservable due to the specific geometric rate the expansion occurs. This would alter the assumed distance of 1asn’s and the assumed “acceleration” (really deceleration) indicated by such. It also addresses the issue involved with no observed time dilation effects noticed in the variation of energy output of quasars. This is merely an aside for now. It is hoped that the postings of others will provide additional explanations and perspectives. )
The time variance of Quasars
The time variance of quasars, while not described in the Hawkins paper, is based upon observed variation in the energy output from quasars. It is the extreme variance of energy output of quasars in short periods of time that has helped determine the size of quasars. Quasars put out about 1,000 times the amount of energy of an entire galaxy, in a region of space 100,000 times smaller. Of course this is based upon the assumption that the cosmological red shift correlates not only to a velocity measure describing the expansion of space but to a distance measure. (v = Ho x D and v causes the red shift). (Some will take issue with this assumption arguing that quasars are much closer, “tired light proponents”).
I regret not being able to find a link with a graph illustrating the time variance of the energy output of quasars. I will try to explain verbally a graph of quasar 3c 279, which is in one of my texts. One of the most dramatic peak cycles of energy output shows that the increase in luminosity varies by a magnitude of 7 over a period of about 1200 days (rise, peak to fall) . There are a number of smaller cycles (rise peak and fall), with a variation of magnitude 2 over about 800 days. Amongst this variation there are additional variations in magnitude of about 1 or perhaps a bit more times over the passage of a just a 50 or so days. There is also some variation with a magnitude of 1 over periods of only a few days. A very “noisy” graph.
While there is great variation in the cycles of energy output from quasars, there is a discernable pattern. Large energy peaks last longer than short energy peaks. Large peaks tend to last a thousand days, etc.
Mathematically, it is possible to extract frequency relationships utilizing a Fourier based transformation with what is called a power spectrum analysis. It allows a statistical manipulation of cyclic processes with a “noise” component. It works best if even numbers of cycles are in the mix, but if there are sufficient numbers of cycles within the analysis, this restraint is not that critical. Categorizing cycle events helps in the statistical evaluation, “large” energy output events last over 1000 days, etc.
The anticipated result
It was anticipated that the further away a quasar was observed, as indicated by the red shift, the greater the time dilation of the cycles observed in the energy output of quasars. The increase in the period of the cycles should correspond to an increasing red shift. Specifically it was anticipated that the cycle length should vary by 1+z. For example, the period of “averaged” cycles should be two times greater than another quasar if the red shift for one quasar has a z of 1 while the other quasar had a z of 3.
No such effect was observed.
This is opposite to the results found with type 1a supernovas. It is assumed that Type 1a supernovas are always the result of a supernova explosion with a white dwarf star with a mass of about 1.44 masses involved. (Baring the variation induced by rotational effects of the two stars involved and the mass of the sister star losing mass to the white dwarf star). (This also assumes that high red shift 1asn’s are the same as “local”, which is an assumption I have issues with). Since the mass involved in the supernova is assumed to be the same, the duration of the event should be generally the same. Time dilation should increase the observed duration of the 1asn by a factor of (1 +z). This time dilation is observed in that the light curves of high red shift supernovas; the “explosion” takes longer to occur the greater the red shift. (Generally).
How can one process associated with Supernovas indicate time dilation associated with red shift, while another process associated with quasars indicate no time dilation associated with red shift?